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AICP 2016 Prep Set 3

American Institute of Certified Planners - May 2016 Exam

Line Item Budgets Emphasis is on proj budget for the next year while adding inflation - expenditures are divided into simple classes such as personnel, equipment and insurance - short-term focus
Disadvantages of Line Item Budgets lack of flexibility - lack of relationship between budget and objectives of the org - only looks one year into the future and isn't linked with strategic, comp or CIPs - lacks focus on programs, looks at ind expenditures instead of how they fun programs
Advantages of Line Item Budgets Does not require review of existing services - easy to prepare and justify - easy for public officials to understand
Budget The allocation and expenditure of funds to provide services to the public - sets spending priorities - 2 types: operating budget & capital budget
Operating Budget Includes everyday expenditures or an org, such as supplies, personnel and maintenance of office space
Capital Budget Includes long-term purchases, such as a new building, rec center, water main or major equip. - Cap budget is one-year for capital expenditures - first year of a CIP
Capital Improvement Program (CIP) A longer range (5-10 years) look at the capital needs of the community - CIPs include project descriptions, estimated costs, construction timelines and sources of funding
The Planning Programming Budgeting System (PPBS) Dev. in US dur. Kennedy admin - foc. on plan thru accomp goals set by dept. - follow comp: 1. budget org by prog area (mission, obj, ind of success) 2. long-range goals, progs and req resources 3. policy analysis, cost-ben analysis, prog evaluation
Advantages pf PPBS Helps depts place their programs in perspective and evaluate efforts and accomplishments
Disadvantages of PPBS time-consuming to prepare and requires that goals and obj be states in measurable terms EX: dept may eval # of permits issued/mo. instead of satisfaction of applicants - lim success because of its heavy info req & incomp. or prog with control mission
Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) TX inst. 70s - last yr bud. closed book - foll comp: 1. efficiency & effectiveness of prog to be re-eval yearly 2. agencies prepare decision packages for each prog (low, med, high) 3. decision packages are ranked by execs and voted on by Council
Advantages of ZBB Requires departments to consider every aspect of its operation and why they do things the way they do them
Disadvantages of ZBB Time consuming to justify every activity - requires intensive info and has limited benefits to managers
The Dayton System (Program Strategies) Budgeting Simple vers & combo of ZBB & PPBS - more influential for large municipalities - budgets are listed in rows and categories (resp. dept., staff time, allocation from last year, etc) are columns
Program Budget Exclusively organized by programs
Purposes for Creating Budget Resource allocation - principal mech for deciding priorities Financial control - assuring resources are spent as decided Management control - improve efficiency & effectiveness comm tool - comm. goals & obj Planning tool - short & long term forecasts
Performance Based Budget Focused on linking funding to performance measures - components: 1. trad use of function/object budget 2. perf info on workload, productivity, outputs 3. perf & spending linked thru cost analysis and program eval
Advantages of Performance Based Budget Helps depts develop and evaluate performance standards
Disadvantages of Performance Based Budget Time-consuming to prepare & requires goals & obj to be stated in measurable terms
Pay-as-you-go Financing Uses current funds to pay for capital improvement projects
Reserve Funds Financing Funds saved for the purchase of future capital improvements
General Obligation Bonds Voter-approved bonds for capital improvements - use the tax revenue of the government to pay back the debt
Revenue Bonds Use a fixed source of revenue to pay back the debt EX: could be used to pay for a new water main, debt would be paid back thru water use fees. Often used to finance utility improvements and special facilities (like stadiums)
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Allows a designated area to have a tax rev. increase for cap imp in that area - usually area with sub blight - used for infrastructure imp in that area to foster redevelopment and reinvestment - increment of increase is used to pay back the investment
Special Assessments Allows a particular group of people to assess the cost of a pub improvement EX: City had a plan to get all streets lit in OH, prop owners were offered reg lights or ornamental ones they would need to pay for and all opted for ornamental
Grants Allow for a portion to be paid by someone other than local gov - avail from all levels of gov, non profits & agencies - typically require local match
What are the three types of taxes? Progressive, Proportional & Regressive
Progressive Tax increases with income EX: federal income tax
Proportional Tax Tax is the same regardless of income EX: Property tax rates are the same regardless of the price of your home
Regressive Tax Tax rate decreases and income rises
Criteria to Consider when Imposing a Tax Fairness - should reflect ability to pay (poor shouldn't pay more) Certainty - fairly applied Convenience - conv to pay Efficiency - use a straightforward process to collect Productivity - provide a stable source of revenue Neutrality
Gov Tax Write-Offs Offering tax incentives to attract economic development
Cost-benefit Analysis Jules Dupuit 1848 - Fed. Nav Act 1936 - est total monetary value of the benefits & costs to a comm of a project to determine if it should be done - prop proj is compared to situation without the proj - everything must be conv to monetary value
Cost-revenue Analysis Determines full cost of delivering a service or group of services EX: determining econ feasibility of annexing various land uses into a City
Cost-effectiveness Analysis Method for selecting among competing proj when resources are limited - dev. by military EX: if a comm has %50k to spend on park services improvements to sev projects can be evaluated
Net Present Value Net monetary value of a proj., discounted to today's present value EX: if pres value of a proposed arena is greater than 0 than one can conclude that the monetary ben outweighs the cost - to calc: years in proj span, mon. benies, costs & interest rate
Internal Rate of Return If the calc results in an interest rate that is greater than what is avail on the market, than the proj would be financially beneficial
Cost Allocation Analysis Process of identifying, aggregating & assigning costs to cost objects
Goal Achievement Matrix (GAM) Comp way to evaluate a project - shows the anticipated attainment of a projects goals and the assignment of accomplishing a goal to a group
Gantt Chart Charles Gantt 1917 - focuses on the sequence of tasks necessary for proj. completion - tasks rep by single hor. bar on an x-y chart - x is time scale - length of each bar relates to time for each task - one task cannot begin until another is completed
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) US Navy 50s, used by defense dept - sched method that graphically illustrates the interrelationships of proj tasks - good when precise time est are not avail - works with CPM - good for large-scale projects
Steps involved with the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) 1. Identify the specific activities and milestones 2. determine the proper sequence of activities 3. construct a network diagram 4. determine the critical path 5. update the PERT chart as proj. progresses
What does LBCS emphasize? 1. activities based on observable character 2. site development character in the overall physical development 3. a five dimension 9 color code
Social Equity The expansion of opportunities for betterment that are available for communities that are the most in need - creating more choices for those who have few
Weak-mayor Government Council makes decisions - mayor tends to rotate yearly
Strong-mayor Government Mayor is elected and makes decisions
Council Manager System Manager is appointed
General-purpose Local Government (Type of Gov.) Counties, towns, municipalities, townships
Single-purpose Local Governments (Type of Gov.) School Districts & Special Districts
Types of Government Positions Staff functions - support line positions EX: HR, Finance Line Functions - provide direct customer service EX: Planning, Parks
Metes & Bounds Use landmarks such as streams and trees to describe location - commonly used in the South - Metes: defined by the measurement of each straight run, distance and orientation - Bounds: more general boundary description, such as a landmark
Federal Township Range System (1700s) Square grouping of 36 sections (usually) 6x6 miles - square mile -/section - 640 acres total
Feet in a Linear Mile 5,280 feet
Acres in a Square Mile 640 acres
Square feet in an Acre 43,560 sq. ft.
Deed Restriction Recorded on deed - can control almost anything - must serve substantial purpose & not violate a protected right EX: only certain house colors - Problems: gov. won't always enforce, city regulations take precedence, req. civil lawsuit to fight
Affirmative Easement Obligation on both parties to take positive steps to perform some act to maintain a reciprocal relationship EX: easement of access - joint maintenance agreements
Subdivision Review Steps 1. create plan 2. staff review 3. submit prelim plan (plat) 4. review plan (infrastructure) 5. public hearing 6. submit final plan 7. review plat 8. public hearing 9. final approval & recording
Performance Bond An agreement with the community to ensure that the final plat is built as shown and w/in time frame - if dev. does not complete $ can be used to finish work - bond is released when proj. is finaled
Land Dedication A gift of land to be used for a public purpose
Exaction of Land Required of developer to dedicate land or money for public use to hold the project harmless from public obligation - must be roughly proportionate to dev. impact EX: park in-lieu fees
Cumulative Zoning Lowest zone (single-family) is most restrictive but restrictions ease as you move into zones EX: only SF res in SF zone but SF could be in industrial zone along with commercial
Form-based Zoning Focused on layout and design, not uses (Smart Code)
First Earth Day? April 22, 1970 - celebrated yearly after 1990
What is the Metropolitan Water District of Southern CA? Created in 1972 to create the CO River aquaduct - built between 1933-41 - ran water pipeline to LA
Rachel Carson Silent Spring (1962) - examined the dangers of pesticides, such as DDT, on plants, animals & humans - influenced the way people think about the environment
Wilderness Preservation Act 1964 - establishes the National Wilderness Preservation System - can grant wilderness areas protected status that excludes them from mining, timber cutting and other operations
National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act 1968 - establishes a system for protecting pristine, free-flowing rivers from development
The Endangered Species Preservation Act 1966 - nation's first law to protect endangered species - permits the gov. to take land into fed. custody in order to protect selected species of fish and wildlife - only banned the killing of endangered species in national wildlife refuge areas
Formation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 1970 - Nixon - enforce laws that protect the environment and public health - Ruckelshaus is the first administrator
The Clean Air Act 1970 - regulates air emissions and grants the EPA the power to set air quality standards - amendments to the act in 1977 & 1990 raise standards even higher, in order to counter problems like acid rain and ozone depletion
Greenpeace Founded in 1971 - uses the media to raise awareness about industrial pollution, endangered species protection and other environmental concerns
Effluent Standards Set restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment - effluent guidelines reduce the discharge of pollutants that have serious environmental effects (EPA has guidelines for more than 50 categories)
Emission Standards for Cars 1999 - requires automobiles to become 77% to 95% cleaner - SUVs and trucks also required to do this
Point Source Pollution Discharged directly from a specific site, such as a sewage treatment plant or an industrial pipe
Non-point Source Pollution Contaminated runoff from many sources
Potable Water Water that is safe to drink
Aquifer 1 or more strata of rock or sediment that is saturated and sufficiently permeable to yield economically sig quantities of h2o to wells or springs - includes geologic mat that is currently used or could be used as a source of h2o w/in the distance limit
Estuary Where fresh water meets salt water EX: San Lorenzo @ Boardwalk
Lagoon Shallow body of water located alongside a coast EX: llama lagoon
Marsh A type of freshwater, brackish water or saltwater wetland found along rivers, ponds, lakes and coasts - does not accumulate appreciable peat deposits and is dominated by herbaceous vegetation
Reservoir Pond, lake or basin that can be used for the storage and control of water - can be natural or man-made
Surface Water Includes rivers, lakes, ocean-like water bodies & coastal tide waters
Swamp Freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water
Watershed Region drained by, or contributing water to, a surface body of water
Wetlands Include swamps, marshes, bogs & other similar areas - inundated by surface or ground water at a frequency sufficient to support vegetation typically adapted to life in saturated soil - can be natural or man-made
Nuclear Energy Non-renewable - use of sub. nuclear fission to gen. heat & elec. - 6% of worlds energy comes from nuc. power plants
Pros of Nuclear Energy Emits low levels of CO2 across life cycle Provides stable and large-scale electricity generation Costs of fuel, operation and maintenance are low
Cons of Nuclear Energy Management of high-level waste requires storage in secure facilities for a long time Construction of new plants requires a major investment
Natural Gas Fossil Fuel - Non-Renewable - formed thru the slow decomp of biological matter over millions of years - often found with oil - odorless, colorless & composed of 90% methane - versatile energy source (industrial and household)
Pros of Natural Gas Transition fuel in the conversion to sustainable energy system Allows a high degree of flexibility Will become competitive as CO2 prices rise
Cons of Natural Gas Emits CO2 (less than other fossil fuels) Some regions that export nat. gas face political instability More expensive than other fossil fuels
Coal Non-renewable - Efficient & inexpen - provides stable and large-scale elec gen - 2 kinds: Lignite (30% carbon) evolved from bog forests under high press. 15-20 m years ago - Hard Cole (80% carbon) dev. same way but exposed to add press. for 300 years
Pros of Coal Provides stable & large-scale electricity generation Has a competitive production cost Fuel costs are low and markets are well functioning
Cons of Coal Coal power plants emit high levels of CO2 Technologies to reduce those emissions are expensive Coal mining impacts significantly on the landscape and infrastructure
Oil Non-renewable - made from plants & org trapped under the earths surface (like coal) - under intense press. & high temp organisms have been transformed over millions of years - found in pockets in porous rock or oil sand - big prod: Saudi, Russia, US, Iran
Pros of Oil Versatile Well Used
Cons of Oil Number of elements that damage the env. Extraction requires large volumes of freshwater Oil Spills
Wind Power Renewable - wind mills
Pros of Wind Power No fuel costs No CO2 emissions
Cons of Wind Power Impact on landscape & emits noise Dependent on available wind Significant investment costs required
Bio Mass Energy Renewable - variety of methods for converting biomass into heat & electricity - converts anything (agricultural, forestry residues, wood, etc)
Pros of Bio Mass Energy Resources are geographically diversified & political risk is limited Using biomass instead of fossil fuels sig. reduces CO2 emisions Prop. managed biomass is carbon neutral over time
Cons of Bio Mass Energy Supply of large volumes is difficult to secure More expensive than coal, gas or nuclear power
Hydro Power Harness the energy present in the movement of water
Pros of Hydro Power Has no emissions that impact the climate or environment Provides large-scale & stable electricity generation Functions as balancing power Has no fuel costs Hydro power plants have a long economic life
Cons of Hydro Power Significant encroachment on the landscape & impact river ecosystems Requires significant investment
Solar & Ocean Energy Nuff said
The Clean Water Act 1977 - amendment to the Fed Water Pollutant Control Act of 1972 - requires anyone discharging pollutants into a body of water to obtain a permit - also regulates the amount that can be discharged & types of pollutants that can be discharged
Point Source Discharge Permit Issued by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) - needed to discharge pollutants into the water
6 pollutants monitored by the Clean Air Act 1. Ozone 2. Particulate Matter 3. Carbon Monoxide 4. Nitrogen Dioxide 5. Sulfur Dioxide 6. Lead
Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR) Created to measure air quality in air sheds EX: BAAQMD
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Relates to air quality and requires that a project will not increase emissions above a specified PSD increment
Ambient Air Quality Standards Max air containment concentrations allowed in the ambient air - has provisions that cut off federal funding for areas that are not in attainment
The Rivers & Harbors Act of 1899 Prohibited const. of any bridge, dam, dyke or causeway over any navigable waterway w/out Congress app. - also req. Congress app. for all wharfs, jettys, piers & the excavation of fill of navigable waters
The Water Pollutant Control Act of 1948 Allowed the Surgeon Gen. to prep a comp program for eliminating or reducing the interstate waters and tributaries and improving the sanitary condition of surface and underground water
Federal Works Administrator Duties - Water Pollutant Control Act of 1948 Under the Water Pollutant Cont Act of 1948 assist gov. agencies in constructing treatment plants that could help to prevent discharges of inadequately treated sewage or other wastes to interstate waters
The Water Quality Act of 1965 Established the Water Pollution Control Admin w/in the Dept. of the Interior - 1st time water quality was treated as an env. concern vs. public health concern
The Clean Water Act of 1966 Provided construction grants for wastewater treatment facilities - req. sec. of ag to conduct a comp study of the effects of pollution, including sedimentation, in the estuaries of the US on fish & wildlife, sport & comm fishing, recreation, etc
The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 created due to increased growth near coast - amended in 1990 - focused efforts to reduce polluted runoff in 29 coastal states - provided match funds to state and local gov to purchase threatened coastal and estuarine lands or obtain easements
The Federal Water Pollutants Control Act of 1972 Amended the 1948 act - broadened the gov. authority over water poll. - restructured area to the EPA - changed enforcement from h2o quality standards to reg. the amount of poll being discharged from particular point sources
Endangered Species Act of 1973 More protection of animals & plants - no hunting endangered species - added a category of threatened (further amended in 1988)
The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 Promoted alt. energy sources, energy efficiency & reduced dependence on foreign oil - created a market for non-utility power producers and requires comp in utility industry
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation & Liability Act of 1980 Created a 1.6 bill superfund to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites & requires major industries to report annual releases of toxic wastes into the air, water or ground
The Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 Provided EPA with the ability to control hazardous waste from cradle to grave - includes generation, transport, treatment, disposal & management of wastes - also management of non-hazardous solid wastes
1986 Amendment to Resource Conservation & Recovery Act Covered environmental issues associated with underground storage tanks for fuel or other hazardous substances
The Toxic Substance Control Act of 1976 Provided EPA w/ resp. for reporting, record keeping and testing requirements and restrictions relating to chemical substances or mixtures - certain substances excluded: food, drugs, cosmetics & pesticides
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide & Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Orig passed in 1947 - est. procedures for registering pesticides & est. labeling provisions - rewritten in 1972 as the Fed Env Pesticide Control Act (FEPCA) -currently mandates that EPA reg. the use and sale of pesticides to protect human health and env
Safe Drinking Water Act 1974 - ensures that drinking water is safe - law protects end product & sources of drinking water - does not cover private wells - does not apply to bottled water (admin under FDA)
Number of public water systems in the US 155,000
Executive Order 12898 - Environmental Justice Clinton (1994) - requires that federal agencies strive to make achieving env. justice part of their mission by addressing the disproportionate adverse env. and human health impacts of its policies, programs and activities on min. or low income pop.
The Office of Env. Justice (EPA) Created by exec. order 12898 - coordinates the agency's efforts to integrate env. justice into policies, programs and activities - provide env. and pub health protection to minority, low income, tribal and other sensitive populations EX: siting landfills
Environmental Indicators Range from air based to dust/lead paint to waste/air/water - measures that tells us what is going on in the environment
Energy Efficiency: Insulation Used to make a building more efficient - rated in terms of thermal resistance, called R-Value - indicates the resistance to heat flow - R-value 20 minimum recommended for residential
Reducing the thermostat one degree results in? 1-3% money savings
Transportation Planning at different scales Regional - planners are concerned with traffic flows w/in a metro area Neighborhood - concern with issues surrounding traffic entering and leaving specific sites
Trip Generation The number of trips that a particular site is likely to generate
Origin Destination Survey requires road blocks on major roads - people in boundaries (cordon lines) are then surveyed about their travel patterns - more detailed surveys can also be handed out for mail back
Cross Tabulation Models trip gen rates based on current data which gets less and less valid with age - when local surveys are available pub. rates are used to estimate
Typical Trip Generation Rates 9.6 Single-Family 6.6 Apartment Unit 11/1,000 sq. ft for office 43/1,000 sq. ft Shopping Center 7/1,000 sq. ft. light industrial
Trip end Refers to origin and destination of a persons trip
Trip Distributution Where people are going - region or areas divided into traffic zones - provides info on how many trips made between zones - provides info on distances, time, nature of the trip, socioeconomic characteristics and the nature of the transp system
Gravity Model Simple tool that quantifies the complex trip gen. relationships - provides estimates directly on the proportional attractiveness of the zone & inversely proportional to the trip length
Modal Split Deals with the different modes of transportation - knowing info on the # of people using modes of transportation means we can estimate how many use vehicles (transit, bike, walk, carpool)
Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) the amount of traffic on a roadway in a 24 hour period, averaged over one year
Peak Hour Volume The hourly traffic during the peak period(s)
Seasonal Hour Volume peak hour volumes during different seasons
Design Hour Volume (DHV) The capacity of the roadway to handle traffic
Metropolitan Statistical Area A central city plus surrounding communities to which it is linked economically
Neo-traditional Development aka New Urbanism - compact, mixed-income, walkable neighborhoods with access to public transit
What measure is most commonly used for traffic volume? Average Daily Trip
Federal Agencies that provide financial assistance for reuse of former military bases? Office of Economic Adjustment - Department of Labor - Economic Development Administration - Federal Aviation Adminisration
Base Closure and Reuse Commission (BRAC) 2015 - congressionally authorized process the department of defense has used to reorganize its base structure to more efficiently and effectively support our forces, increase operational readiness and facilitate new ways of doing business
1923 Neighborhood that includes many of the New Urbanism characteristics? Mariemont, OH
Book: Cities in Evolution Patrick Geddes - 1915 - introduced the concept of "region" to architecture and planning
What is mass wasting? The downslope movement of earth materials due to the force of gravity - aka slope movement or mass movement - geo process by which soil, sand, regolith, and rock move downslope typically as a mass, largely under the force of gravity, but affected by water
What are the common types of mass wasting? Creeps, Landslides, Flows, Slumps, Falls
When is PERT best used? When time is a critical factor
Standard City Planning Enabling Act 1928 - laid the basic foundation for land development controls in the US
Standard State Zoning Enabling Act (SZEA) 1922 - one of the foundational developments in land use planning in the US
Geothermal Energy Renewable - is the heat from the Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the molten rock called magma
Pros of Geothermal Energy environmentally friendly - naturally replenished - great for large and small-scale heating and cooling - available everywhere
Cons of Geothermal Energy minor env. issues involved - power plants can cause earthquakes - expensive to build power plants - only renewable if the reservoirs are properly managed
What is a colocation facility (commercial)? A colocation facility allows businesses to rent storage space for servers and other equipment - it provides space, power, cooling and physical security for the networking equipment for many different companies
Gross National Product The value of final goods and services produced in a country in one year (gross domestic product) plus income that the residents have received from abroad, minus income claimed by nonresidents
The supreme court upheld the right of a city to time the phasing of development, contingent on performance standards being met, in which case? Associated Home Builders of Greater East Bay v. City of Livermore
Describe regression analysis? A statistic that provides an estimate of one variable based upon other variables
Intelligent Transportation Systems Freeway Manage, Elec. Toll Coll.. Traffic Signal Control - advanced apps that aim to prov innovative services relating to diff modes of transp & traffic manag. and enable users to be more informed to make safer, more coord, & 'smarter' use of networks.
Clarence Stein Co-founder of the Regional Planning Association of America - undertook major regional scale projects like the Appalachian Trail - proponent of Garden City movement - Sunnyside Gardens, NY w/ Wright - also collaborated on Radburn, NJ
Traffic Assignment or Trip Assignment Allows use of network models to predict the distribution of traffic for each roadway by the hour - gives info on the routes that will be used - peak volumes can be compared with DHV to see which roadways are going to exp. traffic over capacity
Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) measure of vehicular mobility from travel inventories - function of many factors: topo, pop. density, travel distances, availability of transit - communities vary in their mix and in the significance of these factors
High VMT Indicates? More vehicles are on the roas to meet growing employment, errand and other travel demands - can also mean trip origins & destinations are further away
Focuses of Road Design Street Hierarchy to actual design guidelines for local streets - local or residential roads, collectors, arterials & freeways
Components of an Ideal Road Cross Section 10 ft. travel lanes, 8 ft. parking lanes, a curb & planting strip - this ROW of 56 feet is much wider than most local streets though
Origin of Current Roadway Standards Traced to Fed Highway Administration studies following WWII - definitions of good came from new subdivision designs - thru freq. and repetition (rather than effectiveness) these guidelines evolved into street standards
Issues with Current Roadway Standards Often too wide for most local streets, and are most advantageous if there is a lot of traffic and no off-street parking
Typical local street standards 500 feet max tangents Use of stop signs or speed bumps to reduce vehicle speed 150 feet between intersections Clear site distances of 75 feet Tangent and curve should be higher on collectors as clearer site distance is needed as speed increases
Disadvantages of the Grid Street Pattern Maximum number of 4-way intersections (creates conflicts) Tangent standard cannot always be made Grids result in the max pavement and utility line costs Streets can be used as parallel short-cuts during rush hour Grids can be monotonous and boring
Variations of the Grid Street Pattern Block Grid Curved Block Grid Curved Grid
Cul-de-Sac Standards 400-450 feet long & 40 ft. turn radius
Min/Max Street Gradiant Min. .5% (drainage) - Max in cold areas 5%, Max in other areas 8%
Pres. Roosevelt 1939 Proposed 43,000 km system of highways
Highway Capacity Manual pub. by Transportation Research Board - provides concepts, guidelines & procedures for computing highway capacity and quality of service based on road type (est. LOS standards)
Federal-Aid Highway Act 1944 1944 - designated 65,000 km national system of interstate highways - highways to be selected by the state highway departments - act auth. the system but did not provide any funding
Public Roads Administration (PRA) 1947 - responsible for implementing the highway system - designated 60,640 km of interstate highways
Federal-Aid Highway Act 1952 Authorized $25m for the construction of interstate highways and $175m 2 years later
Federal-Aid Highway Act 1956 Interstate highways system major funding of $25B between 1957 and 1969
Federal-Aid Highway Act 1962 Created the federal mandate for urban transportation planning in the US - urban areas were beg to plan interstate highway routes - act req. urban areas w/ pop of 50K or more be based on an urban trans. plan process - 3 C's: continuing, comp & cooperative
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) 1st focus on providing funding for transit, ped & bike facilities and hwys - gave significant additional powers to MPOs - identified high priority corridors to be a part of the nat hwy system - called for des. of 5 high speed rail - req. airbags in cars
Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act 1987 1987 - aka Fed-Aid Hwy Act of 1987 - allowed states to raise the speed limit to 65 on rural interstate hwys
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) 1998 - req. 7 planning factors to be in regional plans: 1. supp. econ vitality of the MPO 2. increase safety & security 3. increase assessibility & mobility opt 4. protect & enhance env 5. integration & connect. 6. efficient system manage. 7. eff pres.
Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA) 2005- 286B- touted as highway bill - included funding for the New Starts program which helped to fund most of the new rail transit systems that opened in US during this time per. - also incl. controv. 200M for AK's Gravina Island bridge (deemed unnecc)
Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21) 2012 - $105B - includes: env. review reform to speed process, fund for bike/ped decreased - mainstream toll collection - designed to decrease deficit - current plan in place to fund multi-model via MPOs