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Hormones

Hormones of the body

TermDefinition
Oxytocin (stimulated by...) Touch receptors on nipple & stretch receptors on cervix
Oxytocin (released from...) Posterior pituitary
Oxytocin (target) Mammary glands & uterine muscles
Oxytocin (effects) Acts on smooth muscle around milk glands to release milk; stimulates contractions during labor
Oxytocin (tropic?) No
Oxytocin (notes) Positive feedback & plays a role in social bonding
FSH & LH (stimulated by...) Gonadotropin releasing hormone
FSH & LH (released from...) Anterior pituitary
ADH & AVP (released by...) Posterior pituitary
ADH & AVP (target) Kidney
FSH & LH (target) Ovaries & testes
FSH & LH (effects) Leads to estrogen release / ovulation or testosterone release / sperm production
FSH & LH (tropic?) Yes
FSH & LH (notes) Also called gonadotropins
TSH (stimulating by...) Thyrotropin releasing hormone
TSH (released from...) Anterior pituitary
TSH (target) Thyroid gland
TSH (effects) Promotes growth of follicles and released T3/T4 from follicles.
TSH (tropic?) Yes
TSH (notes) Also called thyrotropin
T3/T4 (stimulated by...) TSH
T3/T4 (released by...) Thyroid
T3/T4 (target) Pretty much every cell
T3/T4 (effects) Stimulates cellular metabolism & growth
T3/T4 (tropic?) No
T3/T4 (notes) Lipophilic (even though not steroid). Has iodine connected to things. T4 more common. T3 more powerful. Cells can convert T4 -> T3
ACTH (stimulated by...) Corticotropic releasing hormone
ACTH (released from...) Anterior pituitary
ACTH (target) Adrenal cortex
ACTH (effects) Acts on adrenal cortex (and not the medulla) to release various hormones
ACTH (tropic?) Yes
ACTH (notes) Acts on all 3 levels of cortex. Also called corticotropin
Cortisol (stimulated by...) ACTH
Cortisol (released by...) Adrenal cortex
Cortisol (target) Muscle, liver, immune system
Cortisol (effects) Breaks down proteins in the muscle, stimulates glycogen synthesis in the liver & gluconeogenesis to make new glucose
Cortisol (tropic?) No
Cortisol (notes) Suppresses immune function. More likely to get sick during exams because stress causes high cortisol. Regulates plasma glucose levels (glucocorticoid).
Epinephrine - adrenaline (stimulated by...) Sympathetic nervous system (fight/flight response)
Epinephrine - adrenaline (released from...) Adrenal medulla
Epinephrine - adrenaline (target) Heart, blood vessels, others
Epinephrine - adrenaline (effects) Increase heart rate & contraction strength; increase blood flow to "emergency"organs, decreasing to reproductive, digestive, skin.
Epinephrine - adrenaline (tropic?) No
Epinephrine - adrenaline (notes) mediates fight/flight response
Prolactin (stimulated by...) prolactin releasing hormone
Prolactin (released from...) Anterior pituitary
Prolactin (target) Mammary glands
Prolactin (effects) Stimulates milk secretion/production
Prolactin (tropic?) No
Prolactin (notes) The large drop in estrogen and progesterone (when the placenta comes out) stimulates prolactin secretion
MSH (stimulated by) sunlight
MSH (released from) anterior pituitary
MSH (target) melanocytes (in skin)
MSH (effects) Leads to release of melanin (a protein) to darken skin
MSH (tropic?) No
MSH (notes) Acts as satiety signal (you are full and decreases hunger)
Endorphins (stimulated by...) Stress and pain
Endorphins (released from...) Anterior pituitary
Endorphins (target) Nervous system
Endorphins (effects) Relieves pain; causes feelings of euphora
Endorphins (tropic?) No
Endorphins (Notes) Natural opiates. Same shape as opium from poppy plant
Growth hormone (stimulated by..) Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)
Growth hormone (released by...) Anterior pituitary
Growth hormone (target) Liver
Growth hormone (effects) Liver released IGF; body growth; mitosis, lipolysis, RNA/protein synthesis
Growth hormone (tropic?) Yes (IGF) and No (metabolism)
Growth hormone (notes) Somatostatin inhibits it
IGF Insulinrelated growth hormone
Parathyroid hormone (stimulated by...) Low calcium concentration
Parathyroid hormone (released by...) Parathyroid
Parathyroid hormone (target) Bone, intestine, kidney
Parathyroid hormone (effects) Acts on osteoclasts in bone; promotes Ca2+ reabsorption in kidney & intestine
Osteoclasts breaks down bone
Osteiblasts Puts Ca2+ in bone
Parathyroid hormone (tropic?) No
Parathyroid hormone (notes) Too much parathyroid hormone = too much Ca2+ = suppressed immune system
Calcitonin (stimulated by...) High calcium concentration
Calcitonin (released by...) Thyroid
Calcitonin (target) Bone, kidney
Calcitonin (effects) Acts on osteoblasts in bone; reduces reabsorption in kidney
Calcitonin (tropic?) No
Insulin (stimulated by...) High glucose
Insulin (released by...) Pancreas beta cells
Insulin (target) Liver
Insulin (effects) Promotes glycogen synthesis
Insulin (tropic?) No
Insulin (disorder) Diabetes Type I
The thyroid releases... T3, T4, and calcitonin
Glucagon (stimulated by...) Low glucose
Glucagon (released by...) Pancreas alpha cells
Glucagon (target) Liver
Glucagon (effects) Promotes glycogen breakdown
Glucagon (tropic?) No
Glycogen is stored in the... Liver
Cortisol converts muscle proteins into... carbohydrates (glycogen) to make more glucose.
Diabetes Type I is... autoimmune. Destroys beta cells
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone
FSH Follicle-Stimulating hormone
LH Luteinizing hormone
Lypolysis Break down of lipids: induced by epinephrine, norepinephrine, ghrelin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol.
MSH Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Created by: 1183800444963894