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Chaney - Exam2


coenzyme small molecular weight metabolites which are neccesary for enz. activity, present in small amounts, and are regenerated by other cellular enz.
ATP carries Phosphoryl
NADH + NADPH carry electrons (vitamin source niacin)
FADH2 + FMNH2 carry electrons (vitamin source riboflavin)
Coenzyme A carries Acyl (vitamin source pantothenic acid)
Lipoamide carries Acyl
Thiamine pyrophosphate carries aldehyde (vitamin source thiamine)
Biotin carries CO2
Tetrahydrofolate carries one-carbon units (vitamin source folic acid)
S-Adenosylmethionine carries methyl
Uridine diphosphate glucose carries glucose
Cytidine diphosphate di glycerol carries phosphatidate
Nucleosome triphosphates carry phosphoryl
insulin decreases blood sugar -increases uptake of glucose(except liver, brain, RBC) -increases glycolysis in liver and adipose -increases conversion of glucose to storage forms
glucagon increases blood sugar + increases release of alternate energy sources -increases gluconeogenesis in liver -increases glycogenolysis in liver -decreases glycolysis in liver -increases lipolysis in adipose
epinephrine mobilizes energy reserves + stimulates energy use in muscle -increases glycogenolysis in liver and muscle -increases lipolysis in adipose -increases proteolysis in muscle -increases gluconeogenesis in liver -increases glycolysis in muscle
GLUT 1 & 3 transport glucose RBC, brain, kidney, colon - allow constant uptake (even at low concentration) due to low Km
GLUT 2 transports glucose in liver, beta cells of pancreas, kidney, small intestine - take up glucose when at high concentration due to very high Km, leads to regulation at high levels of glucose
GLUT 4 transports glucose in an insulin dependant manner in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue
nucleoside kinase adds phosphate to nucleoside for salvage
phosphoribosyl transferase adds phospho-ribo groupd to base for salvage
HGPRTase hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase - specific for salvage of HX, X, and G bases
Deaminases degrade amino group of purine
nucleotidases degrade phosphate group of purines
nucleoside phosphorylases cleave ribose from purines using Pi
xanthine oxidase degrades purine ring of xanthine to uric acid (2 steps)
Adenylate deaminase deficiency muscle weakness, excercise intolerance
adenosine deaminase SCID
partial deficiency of HGPRTase Gout
hexokinase fixes glucose in the cell, low Km--> works at low concentration
glucokinase fixes and activated glucose in cells with GLUT-2 (liver, beta cells)
PFK rate limiting for glycolysis, enhanced by allosteric regulation of F26BP--> increase affinity for F6P and decreases inhibition by ATP
pyruvate kinase PEP + AMP-->pyruvate +ATP
lactate dehydrogenase pyruvate + NADH + H --> NAD + lactate
pyruvate carboxylase for gluconeogenesis-in mito, pyruvate --> OAA, requires ATP + biotin
PEP carboxykinase gluconeogenesis,OAA-->PEP, requires GTP
FBP reverse of PFK rxn, allosterically inhibited by F26BP
glucose-6-phosphatase produces free glucose, liver has a lot of it!
glycogen phosphorylase glycogenolysis
glycogen synthase work with branching enzyme to make glycogen
Citrate Synthase OAA + acetylCoA condensed --> citric acid, entry point for CAC
alphaketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme complex, requires same cofactors as PDH, alphaKG-->succinyl CoA + NADH + CO2
succinylCoA synthetase succinyl Co --> succinate + GDP + CoASH (fairly reversible rxn)
malate dehydrogenase malate-->OAA + NADH (net flow is opposite Keq)
pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) enzyme complex, gets pyruvate from glycolysis into mito --> acetylCoA + NADH + CO2, cofactors = thiamine, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, niacin
Created by: MouserKat