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A&P II Lesson 1 & 2

Rio Salado Game Questions

Peptide hormones enter the target cells and elicit a response by mediating neurotransmitter effects. T/F False
Direct gene activation involves a second messenger system. False
Many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmitters. True
The thyroid gland is embedded in the parathyroid tissue. False
The thyroid glad is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an individual. True
All peptide hormone synthesis require gene activation that produces mRNA. True
All of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis ACTH, FSH, LH. True
The anterior pituitary secretes all but Antidiuretic Hormone
The release of hormones from the adenohypophysis is controlled by secretions of the: Hypothalamus
The _______ gland declines in size and function with age. Thymus
The _______ gland may influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity. Pineal
The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is Thyroid
Produces the hormones that promote the development of female secondary sex characteristics at puberty. Ovaries
Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain. Posterior pituitary.
Produces the hormones that direct the production of secondary sex characteristics in males. Testes
Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and moneralcorticoids. Adrenal Glands
Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ. Hypothalamus
The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenisis. True
ACTH stimulates the adrenal medulla to release corticosteroid hormones. False
Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions. True
Calcitonin is a peptide hormone that has destructive effects on the skeletal system. False
Type II diabetes lacks insulin activity. True
The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin. False
Aldosterone is the most potent mineralcorticoid produced but the least abundant. False
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effect through intracellular: Second Messengers
Which of the following is NOT a principal class of hormones? Glycolipids
_____ hormones are derived from cholesterol. Cholesterol
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the target organ also known as _________. Upregulation
"Moon face," "buffalo hump" on the back, a hanging abdomen, and bruises easily are characteristics of the disorder known as Cushing Syndrome
Acromegally is the result of hypersecretion of growth hormones. True
Calcitonin has which of the following characteristics? It helps maintain the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate in the blood.
Catecolamines are produced by the chromaffin cells. True
Which of the following is NOT a function or characteristic of glucocorticoids? They encourage connective tissue regeneration.
Chemically, hormones belong chiefly to two molecular groups, the steroids and the amino acid-based molecules
located in the throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus thyroid gland
found close to the kidney adrenal gland
pancreas ?
Name two endocrine glands (or regions) that are important for the stress response and explain why they are important. testes
ride “horseback” on the thyroid gland parathyroid
found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production ovaries
found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth thymus
found in the roof of the third ventricle pineal body
programming of T lymphocytes thymosin in thymus gland
regulate blood calcium levels 1st Hormone PTH in parathyroid glands2nd Hormone thyrocalcitonin/calcitonin in thyroid gland
released in response to stressors 1st Hormone cortisone in adrenal cortex2nd Hormone epinephrine in adrenal medulla
drive development of secondary sexual characteristics estrogens in ovaries & testosterone in testes
regulate the function of another endocrine gland 1st ACTH in anterior pituitary2nd FSH in anterior pituitary3rd LH in anterior pituitary4th TSH in anterior pituitary
mimics the sympathetic nervous system epinephrine in adrenal medulla
regulate blood glucose levels; produced by the same "mixed" gland 1st glucagon in pancreas2nd insulin in pancreas
directly responsible for the menstrual cycle 1st estrogens in ovaries2nd progesterone in ovaries
regulate the ovarian cycle 1st FSH in anterior pituitary2nd LH in anterior pituitary
maintenance of salt and water balance in the ECF 1st ADH in hypothalamus2nd aldosterone in adrenal cortex
directly involved in milk production and ejection 1st oxytocin in hypothalamus2nd prolactin in anterior pituitary
questionable function; may stimulate the melanocytes of the skin 1st MSH in anterior pituitary
ADH Stimulated by the nervous system
aldosterone stimulated by humoral factors
estrogens stimulated by another hormone
insulin stimulated by humoral factors
norepinephrine stimulated by the nervous system
parathyroid hormone stimulated by humoral factors
T4 / T3 stimulated by another hormone
testosterone stimulated by another hormone
TSH, FSH stimulated by another hormone
Name the hormone(s) produced in inadequate amounts: sexual immaturity estrogen, testosterone
Name the hormone(s) produced in inadequate amounts: tetany PTH
Name the hormone(s) produced in inadequate amounts: excessive diuresis without high blood glucose levels ADH
Name the hormone(s) produced in inadequate amounts:polyurea, polyphagia, and polydipsia insulin
Name the hormone(s) produced in inadequate amounts: abnormally small stature, normal proportions growth hormone (GH)
Name the hormone(s) produced in inadequate amounts: miscarriage progesterone
Name the hormone(s) produced in inadequate amounts: lethargy, hair loss, low BMR, obesity T4/T3
hormone(s) produced in excessive amounts: lantern jaw and large hands and feet in the adult growth hormone (GH)
hormone(s) produced in excessive amounts: bulging eyeballs, nervousness, increased pulse rate T4/T3 (thyroid hormone)
hormone(s) produced in excessive amounts: demineralization of bones, spontaneous fractures PTH
Hormone produced by: parafollicular cells of the thyroid calcitonin
Hormone produced by: follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid T4/T3
Hormone produced by: beta cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) insulin
Hormone produced by: alpha cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) glucagon
Hormone produced by: basophil cells of the anterior pituitary TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
Hormone produced by: zona fasciculata cells glucocorticoids
Hormone produced by: zona glomerulosa cells mineralocorticoids
Hormone produced by: chief cells PTH
Hormone produced by: acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary GH, prolactin
A hormone that regulates gamete production. FSH
Steroids or amino acid-based molecules released into the blood, which arouse tissues. Hormones
These produce testosterone. Testes
Its primary function is to control the rate of body meta- bolism and cellular oxidation. TH
Synthesize insulin. Pancreas
Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis. Pituitary Gland
Controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and release epinephrine and norepinephrine. Adrenal Medulla
Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland. ACTH
One of the hormones that stimulates breast develop- ment and promotes and maintains lactation after child- birth. Prolactin
A hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that enables the body to resist long term stress. Glucocorticoid
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of: Cortisol
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular: Second messengers
Release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism Oxytocin:
ometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as: Down-regulation
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because: It is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
Steroid hormones exert their action by: Entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by: Binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to: Steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily in to target cells
The major targets of growth hormone are: Bones and skeletal muscles
Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP? The heart
Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to: Cortisol
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is: Aldosterone
Which of the following does not act as a second messenger in second-messenger systems of hormone action? Calmodulin
Select the correct statement about hormonal structure or function. An amino acid derivative can be a hormone.
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as: Up-regulation
Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone? Liver
Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference? It does not require a second messenger to effect a response
Catecholamines and/or peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells that comprise target organs. This binding causes: Adenylate cyclase to generate cyclic AMP from ATP.
Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by: Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones? Calcium



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