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AICP 2016 Prep Set 1

American Institute of Certified Planners Exam - May 2016

QuestionAnswer
Accurate Representation of a Positive Correlation? When the high scores on one variable are associated with a high score on a second variable
What is a CDP? Census Designated Place
Zoning form used most often with the principles of New Urbanism? Form-based zoning
What is a hypothesis test? A test for the acceptance or rejection of a hypothesis
Berman v. Parker Eminent Domain case - aesthetic purposes - 1945, dealt with blighted areas in Wash D.C. and Dept. Store (Berman)
Charles Lindblom Incremental Planning theory - 1959 - Auth: The Science of Muddling Thru
Incremental Planning Theory Lindblom - 1959 - suggests planning has to be piecemeal, incremental, opportunistic, etc. EX: Zoning Ord. often updated in pieces
Book: Image of the City Kevin Lynch - 1960 - defines basic concepts within the City, such as edges and nodes
Potential Responsibilities of the Board of Zoning Adjustment? quasi-judicial actions, such as variances
What can be used to preserve agricultural land? Agricultural zoning, TDR, Purchase of Dev. Rights, Right to Farm Ordinances
Methane Gas Naturally occurring byproduct of plants and animals that is burned to produce electricity. Explosive, major contributor to GHG.
Annual energy consumption in the US Increasing, dramatically since the 1920s. Estimated to increase 29% between 2000 and 2020.
Housing Act of 1954 Called for slum prevention and urban renewal - provided funding (701 funds) for planning for cities under 25,000 people. Funds later expanded for state, interstate, & regional planning
Census Trend: Cities with the largest growth in their downtown populations between 2000 and 2010 1. Chicago area 2. Washington DC area 3. Philadelphia area 4. NY/NJ area 5. San Francisco
Cost revenue analysis Fiscal analysis that determines the full cost of delivering a service. Ex: could be used to determine the feasibility of annexing various types of land uses into the city, operating costs compared to anticipated tax yields.
Appalachian Regional Commission Multi-State organization - 13 states - planning, research, advocacy and funding organizations
Agins v. City of Tiburon 5th Amend Case - 1980 - court upheld the city's right to zone the property low density - Agins did not apply for dev. permits prior to the re-zoning - A regulation is a taking if it deprives the prop. of all econ. value & does not advance a gov. interest
Redevelopment Zone An economically depressed area that is designated for governmental subsidies and tax incentives
Groupware Participation process: A variety of electronic technologies that support virtual collaboration using hardware, software and/or internet technology to allow for collaboration activities
Economic Forecasting Helps determine the growth in jobs in the community which translates to demand for commercial uses.
Euclid v. Ambler Realty Court found that as long as there was a threat of a nusance, the zoning ordinance should be upheld - 1st modern zoning as a propert use of Police Power- Bettman involved
1st Regional Plan Chicago - 1909 - Daniel Burnham
Clarence Perry Developed the Neighborhood Unit concept (Rayburn, NJ) - Key contributor to the Regional Survey of New York and its Environs (1922-1929) - Plan focused on suburban dev, highway construction, and suburban rec. facilities
Regional Plan for New York and its Environs (1922-1929) - Plan focused on suburban dev, highway construction, and suburban rec. facilities - Stein & Mumford were involved in the creation of this plan
Best way to engage citizens in a planning process? Neighborhood Meetings - opportunities for interaction
Charrette Process (Design Charrette) An intensive calaboration effort that brings together citizens, stakeholders and staff to develop a detailed design plan for a specific area - may be held for multiple days - effective for quickly developing consensus.
Capital improvement budget Includes facilities that are planned for construction withing one year
Census 2000: What was eliminated Source of water
Advocacy Planning Paul Davidoff - 1960s - argued that planners should represent special interest groups instead of just planning for the majority - then use incremental & rational to plan - advocate for the disadvantaged - resulted in lots of arguments among groups
Environmental Impact Statement Needed for federal actions affecting the quality of the environment if EA determines there will be a sig. impact - includes: 1. intro, purpose and need 2. Description of Impacts 3. Alternatives (the heart) 4. Analysis of alternatives
Environmental Assesment Required to determine whether there is a sign. impact
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 1969 - created the Council on Environmental Quality
Army Corp of Engineers Federal agency - plans for levees, hurricane planning, flooding
How many wireless facilities are in the US (2005)? 150,000
Effluent Standards set restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment
Effluent Guidelines reduce the discharge of pollutants that have serious environmental impacts - EPA has guidelines for more than 50 categories
Fiscal Impact Analysis aka cost revenue analysis - determine if a development will bring more in revenues than it will cost in services - multiple methods can be used - mst common form of analysis on dev. projects (annexations) - caution: some proj have social benefits (not $)
Neighborhood Planning Sub-city level of planning - public participation is key - Bernie Jones book (1990)
Housing Act of 1949 First comprehensive housing legislation passed - called for the construction of 800,000 new housing units and emphasized slum clearance
When is it legal to have a closed session hearing? Non-public hearing items - clarification - items that are private and sensitive
The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Book) Jane Jacobs - 1961 - critical look at planners and planning, with special focus on the mistakes of urban renewal
Saul Alinsky Chicago, 1930s & 1940s - advocate of community organizing - books: Rueville for Radicals (1946) & Rules for Radicals (provided 13 rules for organizing)
Federal Property Administration Act of 1949 established the General Services Administration - responsible for managing, acquiring and disposing of federal property
Average House size Has grown significantly in the last 30 years, 2x since the 1950s
Census 2010: National Rate of Home Ownership 65%
Delphi Method 1944 US Army Air Force - informed citizens and stakeholders complete questionnaires, feedback is given and then another round of questionnaires where participants are encouraged to change their answers until a consensus is reached
Ebenezer Howard Garden City Movement - Book: To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898)
Garden City Movement Howard - Garden cities: self-contained, with a pop. of 32,000 and 6,000 acres, 30k on 1k acres and the rest in farm areas - ownership of land by corporation (not privately owned) - 1st GC in Letchworth England, 1903 - led to New Towns - all became suburbs
US Garden Cities Regional Planning Association of America promoted - Sunnyside Gardens, NY (1922, 77 acres), Radburn, NJ (1928, Stein & Wright) - led to Greenbelt towns
Management By Objectives (MBO) Peter Drucker - 1954 - The Practice of Management - process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand them - requires clear, specific and realistic obj.
First major indoor shopping mall? 1956 - Southdale Center - Edina, MN
Makeup of the local economy? Employers, business conditions & employment growth
Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill) 1944 - provided college or vocational education for returning WW2 vets and unemployment comp. - also provided loans for vets to buy homes and start businesses - resulted in rapid dev. of suburbs
Participatory Rural Appraisal Participation technique - highly visible (maps & picture cards) - used internationally with rural communities
1st Major City to adopt a Comprehensive Plan Cincinnati - 1925 - produced by Alfred Bettman & Ladislas Segoe
Harland Bartholomew 1st full time city planning employee - Newark, NJ - became a famous Planning consultant - wrote comp. plan for St. Louis
National Historic Preservation Act 1966 - requires that all states have a State Historic Preservation Officer - Section 106: requires federal agencies to review a project on historic preservation - created the National Register of Historic Places (Nat. Park Service)
Associated Home Builders of Greater East Bay v. City of Livermore 1976 - court upheld that temporary moratoriums on building permits were okay - Livermore didn't have the infrastructure in place to support the development demand
Dolan v. Tigard 1994 - court found that there must be a rational nexus between the exaction requirement and the development - created rough proportionality test - store owner asked to create bike/ped path when wanting to expand comm. business
George Pullman Pullman, Ill (Chicago) - 1880s - built town around railroad business, employees lived in town, Pullman owned everything - all workers needs were met within the town
New Urbanism 1980s - influenced by urban design practices pre-auto - TOD walkable communities: form-based zoning, transect-based code, TOD
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Early example of multi-state planning - 1933 - provides navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manu, and economic development (a region very affected in the Great Depression)
Father of Zoning Edward Bassett - wrote NYC's comprehensive zoning code (1st one) - 1916
Twelve Leading Indicators Used to project future economic activity
Book: Design with Nature Ian McHarg - 1969 - Focuses on conservation design of development - called for the institutionalization of environmental policy - analyzes the suitability of land for development
Book: Intelligence of Democracy Charles Lindblom - Incremental Planning
Null hypothesis? A neutral statement that does not suggest the direction of the result - always rejected
Citizens to Preserve Overton Park v. Volpe 1971 - Made government agency decisions subject to judicial review - Started a considerable increase in grassroots environmental organizing - US Sec. of Transportation announced plans to build hwy thru a park in Memphis
Multiattribute Utility Analysis Mathematical tools for evaluating and comparing alternatives to assist in decision making - scores are given to alternatives and then multiplied by the weight of that attribute for a total
Random Sampling Gives each member of a population an even chance for selection - difficult to do as you need every member of subject population to be available EX: putting names in a hat or computer randomizing by number
Systematic Samping Population is assigned a number, every xth person is selected (every 4th perhaps) - easier than random EX: lining people up and counting off, every 4th person is selected
Convenience Sampling First members of the population needed that the surveyor encounters - worst technique, easiest to do.
Cluster Sampling Divide the population into groups - usually geographically - groups are called clusters or blocks - clusters are randomly selected and each member of the selected cluster is used
Stratified Sampling Divides the population into groups called strata by a characteristic (maybe male and female) - then a sample is taken from each of these strata using random, systematic or convenience sampling
Sample Subset of the population
Population Total number of some entity
American Society of Planning Officials & American Institute of Planners merge 1978 - become the American Planning Association
Economic Base Analysis Looks at basic and non-basic economic activities - basic: those that can be exported, non basic: those that are locally oriented - looks at proj. of future job growth, current demographics & inventory of office and ind. space - uses location quotients
Location Quotient less than one Importing Economy
Location Quotient over one Exporting Economy
Shift Share Analysis Analyzes a local economy in comparison with a bigger economy - looks at the differential shift, proportional shift & econ. growth EX: comparing employment by industry at two points in time (1990 and 2000)
Brownfield aka: Superfund Sites - Contaminated industrial sites- Comprehensive Env. Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) - more than 1,200 in US - taxes on gas and clean energies help fun cleanup of these sites
Alternative Travel Modes to the Auto for Commute Bureau of Transportation Statistics: 4.4 percent workers used public transportation, 3.1 worked from home, 2.7 walked and .6 rode a bike
Most important element of a contract for consultant work List of milestones, makes it clear the expectations of the consultant
Management By Objectives (MBO) 1954 - Peter Drucker - "The Practices of Manegement" book - A process of agreeing upon objectives in an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand them - measure progress towards onj, on an annual basis
Cohort Survival Population Estimate Uses the pop. at the time of the last census divided into five-year age groups and gender, a death rate is assigned to each group and new groups are created based on birth rates and migration rates - pyramid shaped - very detailed
LULU Locally undesirable land use (hazardous waste dump, adult business)
Lease-purchase Similar to the rent to own concept - Government partners with a developer and agrees to make lease payments for a fixed period of time and at the end the gov. will own the building/park
City of the First Council of Government Detroit - 1954 - The Council of Government movement (COGS) begins with the formation of the Inter-County Committee composed of reps. of each county in SE MI for the purpose of confronting area wide problems
Open Space Participation Technique Participants offer topics and others participate according to their interests - can be multiple discussions on multiple topics going on in one room - can work with large groups
Cost Effectiveness Analysis Finds the most cost effective alternative - dev. by the military - CE Ratio = (cost of new strategy - cost of current practice)/(effect of new strategy - effect of current practice)
Food Desert A district with little or no access to foods needed to maintain a healthy diet
The Geography of Nowhere James Kunstler - 1993 - explores the effects of suburban sprawl, civil planning and the automobile on American society
Golden v. Planning Board of the Town of Ramapo 1972 - Made development conditional based on the provision of services - marked the first time that a town was legally approved to control its own growth - court upheld growth management system (points based) based on the avail of public infrastructure
Characteristics of a Traditional Small Town Dense core with smaller lots around the town center - open spaces at the edge of town - roads that are scaled for daily use
James Rouse Pioneer of Indoor Shopping Malls - major figure of dev. in Baltimore and the east coast between 1950-1980 - developed the new town of Columbia, MD; Baltimore's Harbor Place and Boston's Fanueil Hall
Audience Response System (Public Participation) Uses an instant polling software with a USB receiver/base station & wireless hand-held devices for voting - allows answers to be honest and accurate because they are anonymous
Advisory Plebisicte (Part. Technique) A direct vote on an issue
Primary purpose of the Census To fairly apportion the number of seats in the United States House of Representatives for each state - Congress seats
Pedestrian Pocket 1989 - Peter Calthorpe - a mixed-use development of up to 110 acres with a park at the center
Equity Planning Theory Norman Krumholz - 1970s - Cleveland - focuses on the needs of low-income groups as a top priority - believes planners should work to redistribute power, resources & participation away from the elite -
Megalopolis Jean Gottmann - 1957 - An area with multiple cities with a combined population of more than 10 million inhabitants and dom. by low-density dev. - first used to describe the urban area along the Eastern seaboard from Boston to Wash DC
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) Transp policy-making organizations made up from reps from local gov. transp authorities - Required for urbanized area with pop. greater than 50,000 - Congress created to ensure exist & fut expen. are based on cont, coop and comp. planning process
Critical Path Method (CPM) analyzes results in a critical path through the project tasks - each proj. task has a set time to complete and has to be finished before a new task is begun - the longest path is the critical path - typically used with PERT method
Federal Property and Administrative Act of 1949 Established the General Services Administration - GSA supports the basic functioning of federal agencies
New York State Tenement House Law of 1901 Outlawed dumbbell tenements - required: inspections & permits for construction, light & air in buildings, toilets & running water in each apt. unit - vigorously enforced
Most common technique to resolve conflict Feedback and compromise
Growing Smart Legislative Guidebook Written by APA to encourage states to revise their standard state zoning enabling acts - created at the culmination of the APA's 7-year Growing Smart project, an effort to draft the next model planning and zoning legislation for the US
Nectow v. City of Cambridge 1928 - court struck down zoning law because it had no valid purpose - Nectow was put in an R-3 zoning district in error.
Transect Theory Andres Duany - defines a series of zones that transition from sparse rural to the dense urban core - Important part of the New Urbanism and Smart Growth movements - seen as a contrast to euclidean zoning and suburban dev.
Mean Average of a set of numbers
1893 World's Columbian Exposition Chicago - Introduced City Beautiful movement via The White City - Daniel Burnham
Neo-traditional development Includes compact, mixed-income, walkable neighborhoods with access to public transportation
Metropolitan Statistical Area Includes at least one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants or an urbanized area (at least 50,000 people) and a total metro population of at least 100,000
Urbanized Area Area where there is an urban nucleus of 50k of more people (no cities of 50k of more) and must have a core w/ pop. density of 1,000 persons/sq. mile (may contain adjoining territory with 500 people/sq. mile). 68% live in these areas (as of 2000)
Urban Cluster At least 2,500 but less than 50k people & pop. density of 1,000people/sq. mile - new for the 2000 census - In 2000, 11% of the pop. lives in 3,158 urban clusters
Micropolitan Statistical Area Pop. of more than 10,000 but less than 50k - includes a central county and adjacent counties that have a high degree of social and economic integration as measured by commuting
Census Designated Places (CDP) Equivalent of an incorporated place for data purposes - concentrated populations that are unincorporated
Consolidated MSA Made up of many MSA's EX: Dallas-Fort Worth Consolidated Metro Area
Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) Defined to provide data description for areas where there is a core area with at least 10k people that when combined with other adjacent comm. is socially and economically integrated EX: Dallas/Fort Worth
Census Tract Typically has a population of 2,000 - 8,000 - smallest area where all info is released
Census Block Smallest level at which the census data is collected - typically 400 housing units/block
Minor Civil Division (MCD) Used in 29 states, usually corresponds to a municipality
Census County Divisions Used in the 21 states that do not use the Minor Civil Division unit
Tribal Designated Statistical Area Drawn by tribes who do not have recognized land area - defined independently of the standard county based census deliniation
Parking Cash-out Program Best method to reduce vehicle emissions and commutes - allows employees the option of cashing out their subsidized parking space and take transit to work for free
Leapfrog Development Urban sprawl term - developers will often choose to develop on tracts that are for sale at the time they want to build rather than wait for more expensive ones creating more sprawl instead of building where most appropriate.
Best way to preserve open space for parkland development? Buy the land immediately
Regression Analysis Regression is a test of the effects of indep variables on a depend variable - Analysis explores the rel between variables EX: AICP test score depends on hours studied, exper and education, analysis may show for every 50 hrs studied your score goes up 10%
Clarence Stein Co-founder of the Regional Planning Association of America - sought to undertake major regional projects like the Appalachian Trail
Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency 2002 - TRPA had moratorium on building while writing a comp. plan - court found that no taking that required compensation was made
Local Streets local serving, 25-35 mph speeds
Performance Zoning uses goal-oriented criteria to establish review parameters for proposed development projects - provides flexibility, rationality, transparency and accountability accom. market principles and private prop. rights with environmental protection -
Collector Roads Serve some land uses directly - funnel local street traffic to major roads or arterials - 30-40 mph speeds
Major roads & Arterials Further move traffic and connect to freeways and highways - 40-50 mph
Generation Y 1980-1995
Indian Reorganization Act aka Wheeler-Howard Act - 1934 - restored the management of assets to the tribes (land and mineral) - reversed trad. goal of assimilation into society - encouraged strengthening of tribes - allowed self gov. on a tribal basis - some tribes rej. self-gov.
Special Flood Hazard Area (FEMA) 100-year flood
Most effective technique for preserving ag land? Purchase of Development Rights (PDR)
Kevin Lynch The Image of the City - 1960 - wrote about urban design and form of urban environments - taught at MIT - started using the words: edges, nodes, districts, landmarks, paths and wayfinding - how people understand their surroundings
Linear Programming Proj. management method that attempts to find the optimal design solution for a project - takes a set of variables with constraints and comes up with optimum solution - interactive multi-goal technique
MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century - funds multi-modal facilities - current act
Average Trip Generation Rates single family residential: 9.1-10.2 Duplexes and townhouses: 7.0 Apartments: 6.0 Mobilie Homes: 5.5 Retirement homes: 3.5 Condominiums: 5.9 PUD: 7.9
8 Elements of a Strategic Plan 1. Analyze needs 2. Identify Results (long-term objectives) 3. Admit uncertainties (SWOT relating to obj.) 4. Involve strategic stakeholders 5. Develop and eval. alternatives 6. ID role of the City 7. Develop a funding policy 8. Evaluate performance
Strategic Plan short term in focus and specific in accomplishing certain objectives - 5 or fewer years -helpful in looking at the need for org. changes on a particular issue - not used to effectively plan a city as a whole
Visioning Citizens attend meetings that provide opp. for them to offer input on how the comm. could be in the future - occurs early in the plann. process - citizens help create a vision statement which is broken down into goals - visioning plan has 20-30 year hor.
Tribal Planning Area of interest with comprehensive planning - engages tribal gov. leads, residents and businesses in preparing plans and processes in support of the tribal comm.
Data Collection: Survey Research method that allows one to collect data on a topic that cannot be directly observed - surveys typically take a sample of the population - used extensively in Planning to assess attitudes and characteristics of the public
Cross-Sectional Survey Gather information about a population at a single point in time EX: Conducting a survey on how parents feel about the quality of recreational facilities as of today
Longitudinal Survey Gather information about a population over a period of time - allows data to be combined to compare the differences between time periods EX: Service satisfaction surveys every few years, compare how people felt between 1995 and 2005
Written Survey Can be mailed, printed in a paper or given in person - popular when a planner is trying to obtain info from a broad audience - low-cost and convenient for taker - low response rate & requires people to read and write (not ideal for seniors, ESL)
Group Administered Survey Approp. when there is a specific pop. that is targeted - allows for high and quick response rate - may be difficult getting people together to complete survey - requires small sample size EX: having people complete a survey at the end of a class
Drop-off Survey Allows the survey to be delivered to someone's residence or business - response rates higher than mail because of personal contact, respondents fill out at their leisure - method can be expensive because of time spent delivering - sample is gen. smaller
Phone Survey Useful when need yes/no answers - allows inter. to follow up - response rate can vary, depends on how many people you can reach - can be expensive & biased because of inter. with interviewer - bad for long or compl. ?'s & some people don't have a phone
Online Survey Website, e-mail, text - inexpensive - quick response time - higher response rate than written or oral - neg: can't reach people without internet or tech. (low income, seniors)
How to get to linear miles (scales/maps) Divide SCALE by 12 (12 inch=1ft.) then by 5,280 (feet in a mile) = linear miles EX: Scale is 1:500,000 means that 1 inch. reps 7.89 miles (500,000/12= 41,667/5280 = 7.89)
Conic Map Meridians (longitude/n to s) are mapped to equally spaced lines radiating out from the apex and circles of latitude are mapped to circular arcs centered on the apex (ultimately a half-cirlce map (from above)
Cylindrical Map Meridians are mapped to equally spaced verticle lines and circles o latitude are mapped to horizontal lines (ultimately a flat map)
Planar Map aka Azimuthal - Directs from a central point are preserved and therefore circles through the center are rep. by straight lines on map (ultimately full circle map from above)
Contour lines Lines of equal elevation
Contour Interval Distance between contour lines - closer together the lines, steeper the terrain
Slope guidelines for development 0-.5% no drainage, bad for dev. .5-1% ideal for dev. 1-3% best for residential, slight probs for large comm. 3-5% major probs for comm/ind/large res. 5-10% suitable for specially designed dev.
Slope calculation change in elevation/horizontal distance - ID two points, slope is the change in y divided by the change in x EX: 1 ft. @ A, 2 ft. @ B = diff of 1 ft. (rise)/2 ft. (run)= .5 x 100 for % = 50%
Descriptive Statistics Describes the characteristics of a population
Inferential Statistics Determine characteristics of a population based on observations made on a sample of the population - things are infered about the pop. based on what is seen in the sample
Central Tendency The typical or representative value of the data set - Includes: mean, median and mode
Weighted Mean When there is greater importance placed on specific entries or when the frequency distribution results in a representative value being assigned for each class
Median The middle number of a ranked distribution
Mode The most frequent number in a distribution - there can be more than one mode in a data set - only measure for nominal data
Nominal Data Classified into mutually exclusive groups that lack intrinsic order. Race, social security number, and sex are examples of nominal data. Mode is the only measure of central tendency that can be used for nominal data
Ordinal Data Values that are ranked so that inferences can be made regarding the magnitude - no fixed interval between values - mode & median are the only measures of central tendency that can be used EX: educational attainment or a letter grade on a test
Interval Data Data that has an ordered relationship with a magnitude - mean is the best measure, when data is skewed median can be used EX: Temperature; 30 degrees is not twice as cold as 60 degrees
Ratio Data Has an ordered relationship and equal intervals - any form of central tendency can be used EX: Distance; 3.2 miles is twice as long as 1.6 miles
What is UrbanSim? A software program that simulates urban development
Storm Sewer Design Typically designed to handle up to 25 year flood
Columbia, MD Master planned community - neighborhood clusters (10 self-contained villages) - James Rouse - 1967 - intended to eliminate the inconv. of subdivision design and to eliminate racial, religious and class segregation
Where can one obtain ArcGIS mapping data? USGS, ESRI, Census
Redlining Practice of consistently denying loans in low-income or minority neighborhoods
Qualitative Variables Can be nominal or ordinal
Quantitative Variables Can be interval or ratio
Continuous Variables Can have an infinite number of values EX: 1.111111
Dichotomous Variables Can only have two possible values, symbolized as 0 or 1 EX: Unemployed or Employed
Hypothesis Testing Allows for determination of possible outcomes and the interrelationship between variables
Null Hypothesis Shown as H0 - is a statement that there are no differences EX: The result that traffic calming has no impact on traffic speed
Alternative Hypothesis Shown as H1 - proposes the relationship EX: Traffic calming reduces traffic speed
Data Distribution: Normal, Skewed to the right, Skewed to the left Normal - symmetrical around the mean (bell curve) Skewed Right - a few high numbers that pull the mean to the right Skewed Left - a few low # that pull left
Measures of Dispersion: Range Diff. between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution EX: age of respondents goes from 18-62, range is 44
Measures of Dispersion: Variance Average squared diff. from the mean score of a distribution - descriptor of probability distribution, how far the number lie from the mean
Measures of Dispersion: Standard Deviation Square root of the Variance EX: diff. in wages between 3 people, calc. mean, sub wages from mean, calc. variance = sq. each difference and total divide by one less than sample, calc. stand dev. = sq. root of variance
Coefficient of Variation Measures the relative dispersion from the mean and is measured by taking the standard deviation and dividing by the mean
Standard Error Standard dev. of a sampling distribution - indicate degree of sampling fluctuation - larger the sample size the smaller the standard error
Confidence Interval The width of the conf. interval gives us an idea of how uncertain we are about the unknown parameter - wide interval may mean that more data is needed - frequently used in voter polls EX: 42% dem, 36% rep. 22% und. +/- 3% (conf. int.)
Statistical Test: Chi Square Non-parametric test statistic that provides a measure of the amount of difference between two freq distributions - commonly used for probability dist in inferential statistics - tests the goodness of the fit of an observed dist. to a theoretical one.
Statistical Test: Z-Score Measure of the distance, in standard deviation units, from the mean. Allows one to determine the likelihood or probability that something would happen
Statistical Test: T-test Allows the comparisons of the means of two groups to determine how likely the difference between the two means occurred by changes - need to know the number of subjects in each group, diff. between the means of each group and the stan. dev. for each group
Statistical Test: ANOVA An analysis of the variance - studies the relationship between two variables, first must be nominal and second interval
Statistical Test: Correlation & Corr. Coefficient Tests the strength of the relationship between variables - CC indicates the strength of the relationship between variables, ranging -1 to 1 - closer to 1 the stronger the rel. Squaring the CC is an r2
Statistical Test: Regression & Regression Analysis A test of the effect of independent variables on a dependent variable - RA explores the relationship between variables