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chapter 12


functions of the nervous system - monitors the internal and external environments - permits sensory input - performs interpretation/integration - coordinates voluntary and involuntary responses of many other organ systems
receptors detect: stimuli/touch
neuroglia are -helper cells - also called glial cells
the functions of the nervous system are performed by: neurons
neurons are supported and protected by: neuroglia (glial cells)
the nervous system; communication occurs by way of: electrical impulses (faster)
the endocrine system; communication occurs by way of: hormones carried by the blood
Central Nervous System includes: - brain and spinal cord - coordinate sensory data/ motor commands - higher order functions ( memory, learning, emotion )
Peripheral Nervous System includes: - nerves and neural tissue outside the CNS - communication means between the CNS and the rest of the body
Afferent (sensory) division involves: -incoming messages - brings sensory information to the CNS from the receptors in peripheral tissues
Efferent (motor) division involves: - carrying motor commands from the CNS to muscles, glands, and adipose tissue (effectors)
functional divisions are: Afferent Division and Efferent Division
Efferent division has two components, they are; Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System involves: - control of skeletal muscle contractions - voluntary contractions are under conscious control - involuntary contractions are controlled at the subconscious level - reflexes
Autonomic Nervous System involves: - control of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, and adipose tissue - involuntary actions - is divided into two categories
Autonomic Nervous System is divided into two categories which are: parasympathetic Nervous System and Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System involves: - controlling relaxed state functions - decreases metabolic rate
Sympathetic Nervous System involves: - becoming fully activated during emergency situations "fight or flight" - elevates metabolic rate
Sympathetic is an antagonist for: Parasympathetic
two main categories for cells of the Nervous System: neurons and neuroglial cells
neurons conduct ___. action potentials
neuroglial cells provide support and protection to ___. neurons
the cell body contains the nucleus with a concentration of ___. cytoplasm
the cell body contains; - numerous mitochondria - free and mixed ribosomes = rough E.R. - rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) - clusters of RER and free ribosomes stain darkly - create the gray color of gray matter
Nissl bodies are: clusters of RER and free ribosomes stain darkly
dentrites are: - small, highly branches processes - receive and conduct information to the cell body
an axon is: -long process that conducts action potentials - called nerve fibers - surrounded by the axolemma - attached to the cell body at the axon hillock - some divide into branches called collaterals - communicates to several cells
Telodendria is a series in which cells end in, those cells are; axons and collaterals
Telodendria have ends called ___. synaptic terminals ( synaptic knobs )
the synapse is a __. specialized site where the synaptic terminals of a presynaptic cell communicates to a postsynaptic cell (responding)
which neurons have no distinguishable axon, are uncommon and found within the brain? Anaxonic Neurons
which neurons have two processes (one axon and one dendrite), are found in the neural pathways involved with sight, smell and hearing? bipolar Neurons
which neurons have one projection (axon) and are most sensory neurons? Unipolar Neurons
which neurons have multiple dendrites and one axon, most neurons of the CNS and motor neurons are of this type? Multipolar Neurons
afferent (sensory ) neurons include? - unipolar neurons of the afferent division of the PNS - about 10 million total - connect sensory receptors with the CNS
In afferent (sensory) neurons receptors can be: - dendrites of the sensory neuron - specialized cells of specialized sense organs
in afferent (sensory) neurons receptors are classified as: - interoceptors -exteroceptors - proprioceptors
functions of interceptors are: - motoring the internal environment - visceral sensory neurons carry information to the CNS
functions of exteroceptors are: - monitoring the external environment - somatic sensory neurons carry information to the CNS
functions of propioceptors are: - monitoring the position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints - somatic sensory neurons carry information to the CNS
efferent (motor) neurons include? - multipolar neurons of the efferent division to the PNS - least abundant ( about 0.5 million) - communicate to effectors - transmit response signals
Somatic motor neurons and Visceral motor neurons are a part of what type of neuron? Efferent Neurons
Visceral sensory neurons and Somatic sensory neurons are a part of what type of neuron? Afferent Neurons
functions of Somatic motor neurons of the somatic nervous system are: - communicate to skeletal muscles - a single somatic neuron will travel the entire distance from the CNS to the effector
functions of visceral motor neurons of the autonomic nervous system are: - communicate to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands and adipose tissue - two visceral motor neurons are required to link the CNS to an effector
interneurons are found: within the CNS and perform interpretation and integration
ependymal cells produce: CSF
there in co communication carrying in the: Neuroglia of the CNS
functions of ependymal cells are: -forming an epithelium called ependyma that lines brain ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord and assisting in producing, circulating, and monitoring of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - - - cushions and transports gases, nutrients, wastes.
what type of cells are the largest and most numerous neuroglia in the CNS? Astrocytes
astrocytes form the ___. blood-brain barrier
functions of astrocytes are: providing structural support, absorbing and recycling neurotransmitters, forming scar tissue after injury
functions of a blood-brain barrier are: regulating ion, nutrient, and dissolved gas exchange between the blood and the neurons of the CNS
functions of oligodendrocytes are: having cytoplasmic extensions that wrap around CNS axons and create a membranous sheath of electrical insulation call Myelin. -- diptheria and multiple sclerosis are demyelination diseases
Melinated areas along an axon are called ____. internodes
functions of Microglia are: - small phagocytes - least numerous of the neuroglia of the CNS 0 remove cell debris, wastes and pathgens
what cells are a part of the Neuroglia of the PNS? Schwann cells and satellite cells
what type of cells form/create the myelin sheath PNS axons? Schwann cells
what is the outer surface of the Schwann cells and only occurs at nodes? Neurilemma
functions of Satelite cells are: - surrounding neuron cell bodies in ganglia - regulate oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrient, and neurotransmitter levels around neurons in ganglia
wave of electrical fluctuation that travels aong the axolemma of a neuron is called ____? Nervous Impulse (action potential)
difference in electrical charge across a membrane due to differences in ion concentration is called a ___. Membrane Potential
in a membrane potential: - 1/3 less positive inside and more positive outside - slight excess of cations (+) on outside - creates a polarized membrane
memrbrane potentials have what type concentration on the outside and what type on the inside? outside the cell a high concentration of Na+ and Cl-. inside the cell a high concentration of K+ and negatively charged protiens
in leak channels: - always open - Na+ leaks in the cell - K+ leaks out the cell
in gated channels: - open or close only when stimulated
in resting membrane potential: - more positive on the outside - maintained at about -70mV
Na+ is most abundant when: outside the cell
Sodium-potassium pump - carrier proteins - moves three Na+ ions out to each two K+ entering - always occuring
functions of excitation are: - stimulus causes Na+ channels to open
with enough local depolarization a threshold stimulus is reached at: -60mV = action potential
resting membrane potential is what mV? -70mV
repolarization begina when voltage-regulated potassium gates open, this occurs at what mV? +30mV
Relative refractory period is: - time when membrane is repolarizing and can only respond to very strong stimuli
greater stimuli cannot produce ____. great action potentials
greater stimuli levels CAN produce greater ___. frequency of action potentials
continuous propagation is ___. slower conduction that occurs along nonmyelinated axons ( allows action potentials to travel fast and action potential must travel along the entire membrane
Saltaory propagation is a ___. rapid conduction of an action potential along a myelinated axon and action potential only occurs in nonmyelinated regions, so the action potential jumps from node to node. increases spped of propagation = 120m/sec or 268 mph
type A fibers: are the largest myelinated axons and fastest propagation speed (120m/sec or 268 mph)
type B fibers: are smaller myelinated fibers and propagation speed = 18m/sec or 40 mph
type C fibers: are the smallest, nonmyelinated fibers and slowest propagation speed (1m/sec or 2 mph)
Norepinephrine - released at adrenergic synapses and typically has an excitatory effect on the postsynaptic membrane
Dopamine CNS neurotransmitter released in many areas of the brain and Parkinson's disease are damaged or destroyed
Serotonin inadequate serotonin production may be responsible for mahy cases of chronic depression and prozac, paxil, and zoloft are antidepressant drugs. -- my relieve the symptoms of depression
Gamma-aminobutyric acid CNS neurotransmitter and inhibitory effect in the brain; reduces anxiety
Glutamate most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and important in memory and learning
Glycine major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and the poison strychnine blocks glycine receptors; produces fatal convulsions
types of nueropeptides are: substance P and opioids
substance P are: important in the dection and interpretation of pain
Opioids are: neuromodulators that relieve pain by inhibiting the release of substance P in the brain
a type of Purines is: Adenosine
Adenosine is: released in the CNS, produces drowsiness and caffeine inhibits adenosine activity
type of gasses are: Nitric oxide
Nitric oxie produces localized vasodilation
when a voltage-regulated calcium channels what diffuse into synaptic knob? calcium ions
Created by: apurcel1