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Respiratory system

Anatomy II, EXCI 254

QuestionAnswer
What is the shared pathway with the digestive system? pharynx
components of respiratory system Nose / pharynx / larynx / trachea / Bronchi / Lungs
To bring air from outside to the lungs, for the lungs to outside environment Ventilation
Exchange of gases between, air, blood and cells Respiration (external/internal)
Exchange of air from alveoli to pulmonary capillaries External respiration (+ O2 in blood)
Exchange of gases from systemic capillaries to tissue cells Internal respiration (+CO2 in blood)
components of conducting portion nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
Function of conducting portion warm, clean and moisten air
Components of respiratory portion respiratory bronchioles, alveolar sacs, alveoli
bones of nose frontal, nasal, ethmoid, vomer, maxilla
nasal cartilages septal, nasal, alar
Between choanae and nose eustachian tube
where are olfactory receptors? membrane lining of superior nasal concha
limits of pharynx internal nares, cricoid cartilage
3 regions of pharynx nasopharynx / oropharynx / laryngopĥarynx
muscular layers of pharynx outer circular layer / inner longitudinal layer
Where are tonsils located? Pharynx
openings of posterior nasal cavity 2 internal nares / 2 openings from Eustachian tube / entrance to oropharynx
limits of oropharynx soft palate to hyoid bone
Between fauces Uvula
Swallowing mechanism uvula moves superiorly
Contains 2 pairs of tonsils palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils
limits of laryngopharynx hyoid bone to cricoid cartilage
Composition of epiglottis epithelial tissue covered in cartilage
Voice box Larynx
location of larynx anterior to C4-C6
cartilages of larynx Thyroid / Cricoid / Epiglottis / Arythenoid / Corniculate / Cuneiform
Vocal folds True vocal cords
Ventricular folds False vocal cords
Space between ventricular folds Vestibule
Inferior to larynx Trachea
anterior to esophagus Trachea
Location of trachea from larynx to T5
Layers of trachea Mucosa / Submucosa / Hyaline cartilage / Adventitia
level of Carina T5
Secondary bronchi are made of Lobar bronchi
# of lobar bronchi of right lung 3
# of lobar bronchi of left lung 2
Tertiary bronchi made of Segmental bronchi
Composition of tertiary bronchi no cartilage, smooth muscle
Components of respiratory unit Terminal bronchiole Respiratory Bronchiole Alveolar Duct Alveoli
location of parietal pleura T10
encloses lungs Double serous layered pleural membrane
folding of parietal/visceral layer pulmonary ligament
structures in root of lung bronchi, nerves, lymph, pulmonary vessels
limits of pleural cavity 6th costal cartilage to 12th rib
space that extends vertically costodiaphragmatic space
space that extends horizontally costomediastinal space
layers of lungs serous coat / subserous coat / parenchyma
components of a lobule alveolar duct, alveoli, vessels, lymph, nerves
divides superior and middle lobe horizontal fissure of right lung
component of pulmonar lobe secondary bronchus
component of secondary bronchus 10 tertiary bronchi
component of bronchopulmonary segment lobule
surface area of alveoli 70 m2
main site of gas exchange Type I cells
secrete alveolar fluid Type II cells
supply pulmonary circulation Bronchial arteries
Bronchial arteries branch from Thoracic aorta Intercostal arteries
Azygos vein divides into right bronchial vein
Accessory hemiazygos vein divides into left bronchial vein
Muscles of inspiration Diaphragm External intercostals
Insertion of diaphragm central tendon
Innervation of diaphragm Phrenic nerve (C3-C5)
Accessory muscles of inspiration sternocleidomastoid Scalenes Pectoralis minor
muscles of forced expiration Abdominal muscles Internal intercostals Innermost Intercostals Subcostals Transversus Thoracis obliques
inflammation of mucous membranes common cold
allergic reaction to pollen or dust Hay fever
allergic reaction plugs up bronchioles Asthma
chronic inflammation of bronchial tree from bacterial infection Bronchitis
Bacilli infection that destroys lung tissue Tuberculosis
progressive decrease in ability to exchange gas Emphysema
Virus, secretes fibrinous exudate Pneumonia
Infection of pleura Pleurisy
conducting airways of lower respiratory tract larynx, trachea, bronchi
innervated by ANS bronchial tree lungs trachea
form roof of nasal cavity nasal bone cribriform plate frontal bone sphenoid bone
form nasal cavity floor horizontal plate of palatine bone palatine process of maxillae
bronchopulmonary segment = segmental bronchus + pulmonary a. and v.
Created by: Schnee