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Heart

Anatomy / EXCI 254

QuestionAnswer
volume of blood pumped per day 14,000 L
rate of blood circulation at rest 5 L / dat
What are the layers of the heart? 1) Fibrous layer 2)Outer parietal pericardium (serous) 3) Inner visceral pericardium (serous)
Space between 2 serous layers? Pericardial cavity
Fluid build-up in heart cavity? Cardiac tamponade
Outermost layer of heart wall Epicardium (visceral pericardium)
Cardiac muscle tissue Myocardium
Innermost cardiac layer Endocardium
Features of Endocardium 1) Smooth lining of chambers 2) covers valves of heart 3) continuous with endothelial lining of large blood vessels
Vessels through Right Atrium 1) Superior Vena Cava 2) Inferior Vena Cava 3) Coronary Sinus
Valves of right ventricle? 3cuspid valve and pulmonary semilunar valve
Valves of left ventricle? 2cuspid/mitral valves and aortic semilunar valve
Origin of coronary artery base of ascending aorta
left coronary artery 1) supplies both ventricles 2) supplies left atrium
Right coronary artery supplies both ventricles
posterior coronary veins 1)small cardiac vein 2) coronary sinus 3) middle cardiac vein
anterior coronary veins 1) anterior cardiac vein 2) great cardiac vein
Phase of contraction Systole
Phase of relaxation Diastole
S1 "Lubb" = closing of AV valves, beginning of ventricular systole
S2 "Dupp" = closing of semilunar valves, end of ventricular systole
S3 Ventricular filling
S4 Atrial systole
Inhibit speed of contraction ANS, vagus nerve
pattern of conduction of the heart SA node - AV node - His - Purkinje fibers
location of SA node Right atrium, inferior to superior vena cava
location of AV node Atrioventricular septum
location of bundle of His interventricular septum
SA versus AV conduction SA = same-time contraction between atria while AV = delay between atria and ventricles
responsible for contraction of ventricular myocardium Purkinje fibers
circulation of deoxygenated blood right ventricle - pulmonary trunk - right/left pulmonary arteries - capillaries around alveoli
When does heart develop 3rd week of gestation
original tissue of heart mesoderm
Development of endothelial tubes truncus arteriosus - bulbus cordis - ventricle - atrium - sinus venosus
first heartbeat day 22
changes in pregnancy 30%+ stroke volume, cardiac output 30%+, HR + 15%, blood volume +50%
becomes the Ligamentum Venosum Ductus Venosus
becomes the Ligamentum Arteriosum Ductus Arteriosus
becomes the medical umbilical ligament Umbilical Arteries
becomes Ligamentum Teres Umbilical Vein
structures necessary to fetal circulation placenta, ductus arteriosus, foramen ovale
Innervation to SA node parasympathetic
slowing of the heatbeat bradycardia
acceleration of the heartbeat tachycardia
extends the circumference of the heart, separates atria and ventricles coronary sulcus
left coronary artery branches into: anterior a. and circumflex a.
Created by: Schnee