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ALH Chapter 15

Nervous System

TermDefinition
limbic system controls basic emotions and important role in memory
neurilemma additional external myelin sheath that is formed by Schwann cels and found only on axons in PNS. Pathway for possible neuron regeneration post injury
neurons transmit impulses
dendrites carry impulses to cell body
axons carry impulses from cell body
Schwann cells PNS
Neuroglia support neurons. Connect neurons. Supply nutrients and O2
Astrocytes 3D mechanical support for neurons. Create blood-brain barrier
Oligodendrocytes develops myelin sheath in CNS
Microglia phagocytic properties during infection
Ependyma line fluid-filled cavities. Assist in circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in CNS
encephalo brain
encephalo brain
glio glue
lepto thin, slender
lexo word, phrase
myelo bone marrow, spinal cord
narco stupor, numbness, sleep
radiculo nerve root
sthen strength
theco sheath
tono tension
-algesia pain
-asthenia weakness
-esthenia feeling
-lepsy seizure
-paresis partial paralysis
-taxia order, coordination
pachy thick
dyskinesia involuntary movement
radiculopathy inflammation of nerve root. Pressure applied to nerve root, tingling, numbness, weakness, radiating pain
cerebrovascular disease functioning abnormality of the cerebrum aka stroke
ischemic stroke narrowing of arteries in brain. brain tissue begins to die
intracerebral hemmorrhage sudden rupture of an artery within the brain
subarachnoid hemmorrhage blood released into space surrounding the brain. ruptured aneurysm
transient ischemic attack (TIA) stroke symptoms that resolve within 24 hours
thrombolytic clot buster
seizure disorder sudden changes in behavior/consciousness as a result of uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain.
epilepsies chronic/reoccurring seizures
aura warning signal before seizure
partial seizures part of brain affected. repetitive unusual movements, confusion, and short loss of consciousness
generalized seizure entire brain involved.
tonic-clonic seizure aka gran mal seizure. entire body rigid, uncontrolled jerking,
status epilepticus tonic-clonic seizures follow one after the other without a recovery period
Parkinson disease affects portion of brain responsible for movement.
MS inflammation, hardening and loss of myelin. tremors, muscle weakness, bradykinesia
Alzheimer disease plaques develop in cerebral cortex. disrupt the passage of electrochemical signals between cells. Memory loss and mental deterioration
psychosis severe loss of contact with reality. Delusions, hallucinations
neurosis caused by emotion experienced in the past that overwhelmingly interferes of affects present emotion. phobias, hysterias, OCD
Primary Intracranial tumors intracranial tumors that originate directly in brain tissue. personality changes common, headaches, swelling of optic disk
agnosia inability to comprehend senses
ataxia lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
Gullain-Barre syndrome autoimmune. causes acute inflammation of peripheral nerves. Myelin sheaths destroyed. decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness
herpes zoster eruption of highly painful vesicles on trunk of body or face
Huntington chorea inherited disease of CNS. Quick involuntary movement, speech disturbances, and mental deterioration
hydrocephalus fluid in the brain
anencephaly some or all of fetal brain is misssing
palsy paralysis, usually partial and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or uncontrolled tremor.
Bell palsy facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the 7th cranial nerve
paresthesia sensation of numbness, prickling, tingling or heightened sensitivity
poliomyelitis inflammation of grey matter of spinal cord caused by a virus. spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
Reye syndrome acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of brain, liver, and maybe pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes. Caused by aspirin during childhood
Created by: Gianna B