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ALH Chapter 14

Endocrine System

TermDefinition
sympathomimetic agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
hypophysis pituitary gland
adenohypophysis anterior lobe of pituitary. 6 hormones
neurohypophysis posterior lobe of pituitary. ADH and oxytocin
thyroid gland largest. 2 lobes
isthmus connects two lobes of thyroid gland
thyroid hormone (TH) body's major metabolic hormone
Th consists of T3 and T4. T4 converted to T3 at target site
Parathyroid hormone helps regulate calcium balance
adrenal glands AKA suprarenal glands
mineralocorticoids maintain balance of electrolytes in kidneys
Glucocorticoids influence metabolism of carbs, fats, and proteins
epinephrine maintains blood pressure, cardiac output, dilates airways, and raises blood glucose levels
norepinephrine raises blood pressure
crino secrete
kali potassium
-crine secrete
-dipsia thirst
cretinism newborns. mental retardation, impaired growth, low body temp, abnormal bone formation
myzedema hypothyroidism in adults. edema, low levels of T3 and T4, weight gain, cold intolerance, fatigue, depression, muscle/joint pain, and sluggishness
Graves disease hyperthyroidism. elevated metabolic rate, abnormal weight loss, excessive perspiration, muscle weakness, emotional instability
toxic goiter excessive release of thyroid-stimulating hormone
hypoparathyroidism elevated calcium levels, spasms
hyperparathyroidism benign tumors. demineralization of bones
Addison disease adrenal cortex damaged. interferes with body's ability to handle stress. severe dehydration, muscle weakness, anorexia, gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, hypoglycemia, hypotension, low blood sodium and high serum potassium
Cushing Syndrom excessive amounts of cortisol. moon-shaped face, grossly exaggerated head and trunk, pencil thin arms and legs, fatigue, high bp, excessive hair growth in unusual places
pheochromocytoma excessive amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine. high bp, rapid heart rate, stress, fear, palpitations, headaches, visual blurring, muscle spasms, and sweating
type 1 diabetes children genetic
type 2 diabetes adults. eating habits
gestational diabetes during pregnancy
acromegaly rare hormonal disorder in adulthood, usually caused by a GH-secreting pituitary tumor that promotes the soft tissue and bones of the face, hands and feet to grow larger than normal
diuresis increased formation and secretion of urine
glycosuria abnormal amount of glucose in the urine
hirsutism excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
hypervolemia increased blood volume
hyponatremia lower than normal level of sodium in the blood
insulinoma tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
panhypopituitarism total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity
thyroid storm crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of an increased amount of thyroid hormone
virilism masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman
exophthalmometry measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball
transsphenoidal hypophysectomy endoscopic procedure to surgically remove a pituitary tumor through an incision in the spheroid sinus without disturbing brain tissue
Created by: Gianna B