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NAU A&P, 1&2

NAU Intro to Anatomy and Physiology, Chemical Basis of Life

Simplest substance, cannot be decomposed or resolved by chemical changes into simpler substances. Basic substance out of which all matter is composed. Elements
2 or more atoms combine of the same kind Molecule
2 or more atoms combine of a different kind Compound
Instrumental in bond formation Role of Electrons
Formed between oppositely charged particles, if separated the result can be an Electrolyte Ionic Bonds
Molecules in which electrons are shared instead of gained or lost. Covalent Bonds
Weak bonds formed between water molecules and intramolecular bonds. Gives a 3-dimensional shape Hydrogen bonds
The starting materials in a chemical reaction Reactants
The finished compound in a chemical reaction Products
Actual Reaction in a chemical reaction Synthesis
When 2 or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger more complex molecule. Amino acids binding together into proteins Synthesis Reactions
When a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions. Ex. Glycogen into individual glucose molecules. Decomposition Reactions
When both synthesis and decomposition reactions are involved as ATP reacts with glucose to become trapped in a cell Exchange Reactions
Can donate a hydrogen ion into a solution Acid
Can accept hydrogen ions from a solution Base
Is a balanced combination of an acid with a base Salt
Monitors the acidity and the alkalinity of a solution based on how many ions have been released into the solution. PH scale
Resist PH change and help prevent such changes, bicarbonate Buffers
A chemical element almost identical except for its number of neutrons in it's nucleus. Isotope
Compounds that do not have carbon and usually dissociates in water forming ions. Inorganic Substances
Universal solvent, can dissolve many substances in large amounts Water
Water Hydro
Water loving Hydrophyllic
Water fearing Hydrophobic
Consists of 2 or more compounds combined but are not chemically bound. Mixture
Homogeneus mixture where the molecule are evenly distributed and will not separate upon standing. Solution
The dissolving substance Solvent
The substance which is being dissolved. Ex- sugar glucose. Solute
Heterogeneous mixture where the particles will separate out upon standing. Ex- Salad dressing Suspension
Used by organelles to release energy from nutrient molecules to drive the cell's metabolic activities Oxygen
Heterogeneous mixture where the particles remain suspended, but DOES NOT separate upon standing. Ex- Jell-O Colloid
Contain ions that are essential for metabolism, maintaining proper water concentrations, pH, blood clotting, bone development, energy transfer within cells and muscle and nerve functions. Inorganic Salts
Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins, contains carbons Organic Substances
Main energy source composed of basic units that are simple sugars. Ex: Monosaccharides, disaccharides (table sugar) Carbohydrates
Chemically diverse group consisting of fats, steriods, vitamins A, D, E and K, all which are fairly insoluable in water. Ex: cholesterol Lipids
Used to make bile salts that help digest lipids. Cholesterol
Are essential for maintaining cell membranes and organelles, synthesis of enzymes, cell division and other processes. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, which form building blocks Protein
Directs the cell's activities, consists of Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytocine (C), Thymine (T). Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Located almost entirely in the cytoplasm, Copy of the DNA. Ribonucleic Acid
Cutting up. A study of structures. Anatomy
Relationship to nature. Study of functions Physiology
Electrons, protons and neutrons Subatomic Particles
Combination of subatomic particles Atom
A binding together of multiple atoms. Ex: water Molecule
A binding together of multiple molecules Macromolecule
Structure within a cell that carry a specific activity for the cell to function. Organelle
Basic functional unit of any living organism. Ex: Thread Cell
Group of cells. Ex: material Tissue
Groups of tissues with the same purpose. Ex: sleeve, collar, cuff. Organs
Groups of organs all functioning for the same purpose. Ex: Shirt, skirt. Organ systems
Living species Organism
Protection, consists of skin, nails, hair, sweat and oil glands. Integumentary System
Supports and protect, consists of 206 bones, cartilage, ligaments and joints Skeletal System
Formation of blood cells Hematopoiesis
Movement, protection, form, consists of skeltal, cardiac and smooth Muscular system
Central and peripheral, consists of brain, spinal cord and everything else with brain Nervous system
Hormone production, located in various areas of the body Endocrine system
Moves nutrients and gases into and out of the tissues, consists of heart and vessels Cardiovascular system
Immunity, protection and absorption of digested fats; located in various areas of the body. Lymphatic system
Gas movement in adn out of the tissues, consists of lungs and passageways Respiratory system
Absorption of nutrients; consists of everything of mouth to anus Digestive system
Reduction of waste and excess water; consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Urinary system
Production of offspring and aging, consists of internal and external sex organs, penis, vagina, testes, ovaries Reproductive System
Physical and chemical events that obtain, release, and utilize energy. Metabolism
Breakdown of complex into simple. Ex: potato chips into starch, sugar Catabolism
Building of simple nutrients into compound energy-ATP Anabolism
Adenosine Triphosphate ATP
State of equilibrium or balance Homeostaisis
Receives information regarding conditions or situations. Receptors
Monitors and input and sets the normal ranges. Ex: body temp Control center
Responds to information to help maintain homeostaisis Effectors
The net effect of the response to the stimulus shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity. Ex: sugar high, over production of insulin Negative Feedback
Controls infrequent events that ocur explosively and does not require continuous adjustments. Ex: puncture wounds and childbirth. Positive Feedback
2 main body cavities Dorsal and Ventral
Consists of cranial and spinal cavities Dorsal cavity
Consists of Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities Ventral cavity
Consists of Oral, Nasal, Orbital and Middle ear cavities Cranial cavity
Contains vertebral column Spinal cavity
Consists of mouth Oral cavity
Consists of paired, inside nose and associated sinuses Nasal cavity
Consists of paired, eyes, associated nerves and muscles Orbital cavity
Consists of paired, containing the bones, nerves and membranes. Middle ear cavity
Separates the lungs into left and right regions Mediastinum
Consists of mediastinum Thoracic cavity
Consists of abdominal and pelvic regions Abdominopelvic cavity
Consists of stomach, liver and intestines Abdominal cavity
Consists of reproductive organs Pelvic cavity
Toward head Superior
toward tail, away from head Inferior
Ventral Anterior
Back Posterior
Midline Medial
Away from midline Lateral
Between medial and later structure Intermediate
Close to origin, point of attachment of the body Proximal
Away from the origin, point of attachment of the body Distal
External, toward body surface Superficial
Internal, away from the body surface Deep
Longitudinal section dividing the body into unequal left and right sides Sagittal Plane
Longitudinal section dividing the body into equal left and right sides Mid-sagittal Plane
Divides the body into anterior and posterior Frontal Plane
Section parallel to the floor dividing the body into superior and inferior Transverse Plane
Around bellybutton Umbilical
Above stomach Epigastric
Below Stomach Hypogastric
Lateral region of hypogastric Right and Left Inguinal
Lateral to umbilical Right and Left Lumbar
Lateral to Epigastric Right and Left Hypochrondiac
Trunk, inferior to ribs Abdominal
Point of shoulder Acromial
Anterior surface of elbow Antecubital
Armpit Axillary
Arm Brachial
Facial cheek Buccal
Wrist Carpal
Fingers or toes Digital
Thigh Femoral
Lateral part of leg Fibular
Lateral area where the trunk meets leg Inguinal
Nose Nasal
Mouth Oral
Eye Orbital
Neck- anterior and posterior Cervical
Hip Coxal
Leg Crural
Anterior surface of knee Patellar
Lower abdomen Pelvic
Breastbone Sternal
Ankle Tarsal
Chest Thoracic
Heel of foot Calcaneal
Head Cephalic
Superior curve of shoulder Deltoid
Buttock Gluteal
Lower back between ribs and hips Lumbar
Back of head Occiptal
Posterior surface of elbow Olecranal
Posterior surface of knee Popliteal
Area between hips Sacral
Shoulder blades Scapular
Calf Sural
Spine Vertebral
Sole of foot Plantar
A thin sheet or layer of pliable tissue, serving as a covering or envelope of a part, as the lining of a cavity, as a partition or septum, or as a connection between 2 structures Membranes
Surface is made of epithelium Epithelium Membranes
Lines the body cavities Serous membranes
Attached to the body wall, lines thoracic cavity Parietal membranes
On the surface of the organs, intimate covering of the lungs Visceral membranes
Area holding the lungs Pleurae membranes
Sac that holds the heart divided into Serous pericardium
Lying on heart surface. (Epicardium) Visceral pericardium
Containing pericardial fluid which functions to reduce friction during beating Pericardial cavity
Outer layer lying just below the fibrous pericardium Parietal pericardium
Outer most layer of the sac (serous pericardium) Fibrous pericardium
Lines the walls of the abdominal cavity, covers the organs; supports and protects the structures within the abdomen. Peritoneum
Lines tubes and other spaces that open to the outside of the body Mucous
Skin Cutaneous
Lines the joint cavities and small cushions near the joints (bursae) Synovial membranes
Small cushions near the joints Bursae
Covers parts of nervous tissue Meninges
Dense, regular, connective tissue- bands that wrap around muscle Fascia
Insulates the body and protects the skin, located beneath the skin Superficial Fascia
Covers, separates and protects skeletal muscle Deep Fascia
Associated with various organs Peri
Next to the heart Pericardium
Next to the bone Periosteum
Next to the cartilage Perichondrium
Created by: FKrouse



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