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Chapter 11

Vocabulary – Cardiovascular System

Aorta: Largest artery in the body.
Apex of the heart: Lower tip of the heart.
Arterioles: Small artery.
Atrioventricular bundle: (bundle of His) Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them. His is pronounced "hiss".
Artery: Largest type of blood vessel; carry blood away from the heart all part of the body.Notice that artery and away begin with and "a".
Atrioventricular node (AV node): Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) through the AV node and atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles.
Atrium (plural: atria): One of the two upper chamber of the heart.
Capillary: Smallest blood vessel. Materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls.
Carbon dioxide (CO2): Gas(waste)released by body cells, transported the the veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation.
Coronary arteries: Blood vessel that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
Deoxygenated blood: Blood that is oxygen-poor.
Diastole: Relaxation phase of the heart, ( from the Greek diastole, dilation).
Electrocardiogram: Record of the electricity flowing through the heart. The electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T.
Endocardium: Inner lining of the heart.
Endothelium: Innermost lining of the blood vessels.
Mitral valve: Valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve.
Murmur: Abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves.
Myocardium: Muscular, middle layer of the heart.
Normal sinus rhythm: Heart rhythm originating indid the sinoatrial node with a rate and patients at rest of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
Oxygen: Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be prompt via arteries to all body cells.
Pacemaker (sinoatrial trial node): Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begin the heartbeat. An artificial cardiac pacemaker is and electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is week and not functioning.
Pericardium: Double layered membrane surrounding the heart.
Pulmonary artery: Artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs.
Pulmonary circulation: Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
Pulmonary valve: Valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary vein: One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
Pulse: Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries.
Septum: (plural septa) Partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left (interatrial septum) and right and ventricles ( interventricular septum).
Sinoatrial node (SA node) Pacemaker of the heart.
Sphygmomanometer: Instrument to measure blood pressure.
Systemic circulation: Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissues
Systole: Contraction phase of the heartbeat. (From Greek systole, contraction.)
Tricuspid valve: Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three (tri-) leaflets, or cusps.
Valve: Structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction.
Vein: Thin walled vessel that carries blood from the body tissues and long back to the heart. Vein contained valve to prevent backflow of blood.
Vena cava ( plural: venae cavae): Largest vein in the body. The superior and inferior vanae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart.
Ventricle: One of two lower chambers of the heart.
Venule: Small vein.
Created by: Bowiegirl