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chapter 12

QuestionAnswer
The somatic nervous system controls what? Skeletal muscle contractions
The effectors of the autonomic nervous system includes: Skeletal muscle
which two branches of the nervous system commonly work as anatgonists to each other? papasympathetic and sympathetic
clusters of rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes within the cell body of a neuron appear dark when stained. These are called: Nissl bodies
If axons divide into branches, the branches are called: collaterals
most sensory neurons are ___ neurons. unipolar
motor neurons and most interneurons are ___ neurons. multipolar
____ are receptors that monitor position and movements of skeletal muscles and joints. proprioceptors
at a synapse, neurotransmitters are released from the __ cell. presynatic
___ are cells that produce, circulate, and monitor cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Ependymal cells
phagocytic cells in neural tissue of the CNS are: microglia
in the preipheral nervous system, ___ produce the myelin sheath. oligodendrocytes
___ are the most numerous of the neuroglial cells. they form the blood-brain barrier. astrocytes
___ are neuroglial cells that surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia of the perpheral nervous system. they oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrient levels for the associated neurons. astrocytes
Nonmyelinated regions along a myeliated axon are called: internodes
a shift in the resting membrane potential from -70V to -61V is called: a graded potential
In the generation of an action potential, voltage-regulated sodium gates open at ___ millivolts and a tremendous amount of sodium ions diffuse into the cell. -60V
Sodium ions spread along the cytoplasm at the surface of an axolemma by: local potentials
At ___ millivolts, the voltage-regulated sodium gates close and voltage-regulated potassium gates open. +30
when the voltage-regulated gates open, potassium floods outward and may create a moment of ____. hyperpolarization
The ___ is (are) responsible for maintaining resting membrane distributions of sodium and potassium across the neuron cell membrane. sodium-potassium pump
The period of time in which a stimulated neuron cannot respond to another stimulus is called the: absolute refractory period
Along myelinated axons, action potentials travel rapidly by ___. saltatory propagation
Action potentials travel fastest long ___ fibers. type A
the neuromuscular junction is an example of a ___. cholinergic synapse
the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain is: dopamine
inadequate ___ production may be responsible for many cases of chronic depression. serotonin
Created by: apurcel1
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