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Chapter 11

Respiratory System

Responsibilities of the respiratory system Respiration = exchange of gases between the body and air, production of sound, assisting in the body's defense against foreign materials
External Respiration Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs
Internal Respiration Inhaled oxygen circulates from the pulmonary bloodstream into the lungs
Nose Entrance to nose = nostrils or nares(singular-naris) Air enters through nose and mouth
Nasal Cavity Divided into left and right chambers by a dividing wall call the septum
Paranasal Sinuses Hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity, lighten the skull and enhance the sound of the voice, lined with mucous membranes
Cilia Hairlike projections on mucous membranes
Pharynx Throat, Commonly divided into three sections
Epiglottis Covers the opening of the larynx when swallowing
Larynx Contains the vocal cords, also know as the voicebox
Trachea Windpipe
Bronchi Trachea branches into two tubes called the bronchi, each bronchi leads to a separate lung
Bronchioles Smallest branches of the bronchi
Alveoli Air sacs, pulmonary parenchyma
Lungs Two coned-shaped, spongy organs consisting of the aveoli, blood vessels, elastic tissue, and nerves. LEFT LUNG: has two lobes RIGHT LUNG: Has three lobes
Apex Uppermost part of lung
Base Lower part of lung
Hilum Portion in midline region where blood vessels, nerves, and bronchial tubes enter and exit the lungs
Pleura Double-folded membrane that surrounds the lungs
Parietal Pleura Outer layer of the pleura, which lines the thoracic cavity
Visceral Pleura Inner layer of pleura, which covers the lungs
Pleural space Small space between the pleural membranes
Inhalation Inspiration, Air drawn into lungs
Exhalation Expiration, Air is forced out of lungs
Inspection Visual examination of the external surface of the body
Palpation Process of examination of the body using hands and fingers to the external surface of the body
Auscultation Process of listening for sounds within the body
Percussion Use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine the position, size, and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity
Apnea Temporary cessation of breathing
Bradypnea Abnormally slow breathing
Cough Forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration, air nosily expelled
Nonproductive No expectoration of sputum, Dry cough
Productive Expectoration of sputum, wet cough
Types of sputum Mucoid, Mucopurulent, purulent, serous
Cyanosis Slightly Bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark coloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Dysphonia Difficulty in speaking, Hoarseness
Epistaxis Hemorrhage from the nose, nosebleed
Expectoration Act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
Hemoptysis Expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs
Hypercapnia Increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hypoxemia Insufficient oxygenation of the blood
Hypoxia Deficiency of oxygen
Kussmaul Respirations Very deep, gasping type of respiration usually associated with sever diabetes acidosis
Orthopnea Respiratory condition in which there is dyspnea when the patient is in any position other than standing or sitting upright
Pleural Rub Frcition rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space
Rales Abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion of exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls
Rhinorrhea Thin, watery discharge from the nose
Rhonchi Rattlings in the throat produced by air through obstructed airways
Stridor Harsh sound, High pitched and resembling the blowing of wind due to the obstruction of air passages
Tachypnea Abnormal rapidity of breathing
Wheeze Whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from the narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway
Created by: Evyloveslife