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Civil War Notes

Georgia Studies Notes on the Civil War

What is the beginning date of the Civil War? April 12th, 1861
What is the ending date of the civil war? April 9th, 1865
How many soldiers died as a result of the Civil War? 618,000 - 620,000
How many Confederate States were there during the Civil War? How many Union states were there? Confederate States- 11 Union States- 23
What was the capital of the Union? Of the Confederacy? Union- Washington, D.C. Confederate- Richmond, V.A.
What was the 1st state to secede from the Union? South Carolina
Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired? Fort Sumpter
List the four Border States: Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri
What were the names of the Union and Confederate ironclads? Confederate- Marimack Union- Monitor
What important fort, located outside of Savannah, did the Union army capture in 1862? Fort Pulaski
The worst Civil War 'Prisoner of War' camp was located in Georgia. What is its name? Andersonville
Why did the Union target Atlanta for destruction? Communication Center, Arsenals, Railroads
What is 'Sherman's March to the Sea'? A 60 mile wide path of destruction across Georgia
What are Sherman's 'bowties'? Railroad tracks that were heated, then wrapped around trees
Over ______________ dollars worth of damage was done to the state of Georgia by Sherman and his army. $100,000,000 (one-hundred million)
What battle split the Confederacy in two and gained control of the Mississippi river? Battle at Vicksburg
What was the first battle of the Civil War? Battle at Bull Run
What was the bloodiest one-day battle in U.S. history? Battle of Antietam or Sharpsburg
What was a three-day battle that ended the Confederate invasion of the North? Battle at Gettysburg
What battle's name means, "Place of Peace"? Battle of Shiloh
In what battle was Stonewall Jackson accidentally shot by his own men? Battle at Chancellorsville
What battle resulted in the Confederate States of America losing their last large railroad and communication center? Battle of Atlanta
What was the name of the Union general sent to destroy the city of Atlanta? William T. Sherman
What was the name of the Confederate General who abandoned Atlanta? What happened when he abandoned the city? John B. Gordon. Taken over and everyone evacuated.
What Georgia cities contained Confederate arsenals? Macon, Atlanta, Columbus and Augusta
Why did Sherman order his men to 'live off the land'? They needed all the supplies possible, keep supplies from the Confederates, and hurt home war effort
What did Sherman give to Lincoln as his birthday present in 1864? The city of Savannah.
Why did Charleston receive such cruel treatment? Charleston is in South Carolina, which was the first state to secede and Fort Sumpter was also located there. (First shots of the Civil War)
When was the election of Abraham Lincoln? November 1860
What was the misunderstanding with the southern states during Abraham Lincoln's election? (Why they wanted to secede) They (Southern States) thought that Lincoln wanted to abolish slavery, but he really just wanted to contain it
When was the Confederate States of America formed? February 1861
Who were the leaders of the Confederate States of America (CSA)? Jefferson Davis - President Alexander Stephens - Vice President Robert Toombs - Secretary of State
What was the name of the Union Army? Confederate? Union- Army of the Potomac Confederate- Army of Northern Virginia
Who were the generals of the Union Army? Confederate? Union- McClellan, Burnside, Hooker, Meade and ULYSSES S. GRANT Confederate- Stonewall Jackson, James Longstreet, JEB Stewart and ROBERT E. LEE
What was the North's reason for fighting? To restore the Union
What was the South's reason for fighting? For independence and state's rights (Ending slavery doesn't become a focused reason until late 1862)
What were the results of the battle at Bull Run? Confederate Victory } The south could have ended the war
What is the Battle of Shiloh known for? There were more casualties in this battle than the American Revolution, The War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War combined
What is the other name for the Battle of Antietam? Sharpsburg
What does General Lee need at the Battle of Antietam? A victory on Union soil
What was General Lee's BIG mistake? He made battle plans for one of his men to deliver to another Confederate general, but the man lost it in the woods and never told anyone. Soon, a Union soldier found it.
What was General McClellan's BIG mistake? When General McClellan was given General Lee's lost battle plans, he didn't do anything with them for 18 hours. When he did finally fight, he did horrible and Lee escaped
What was the result of the Battle of Antietam? The Union claims victory, but Lee escapes and Richmond, VA wasn't captured. General McClellan was soon replaced.
What is the Emancipation Proclamation? Frees all slaves in the 'rebelling' states, but not the border states
When was the Emancipation Proclamation released? September 22, 1862
Why did Abraham Lincoln not free the slaves in the border states? He didn't want them to rebel too
What were the results of the Emancipation Proclamation? Strong African American support of the Union, Europe won't help the South and the South refuses to free their slaves
Where was the Battle of Chancellorsville? Virginia
Who won the Battle of Chancellorsville? Confederates
How long was the Battle of Gettysburg? Three Days
Who won the Battle of Gettysburg? The Confederates started winning, but the Union won in the end
What was "Pickett's Charge"? A mass slaughter of the Confederates
What happened during the Battle of Vicksburg? U.S. Grant was attempting to invade the city and gain control of the Mississippi River
What were the results of the Battle of Vicksburg? Union victory, South was cut in half, and Confederacy loses major supply and travel route.
Why did Lee take the Army of Northern Virginia to Pennsylvania? To draw Grant out of Vicksburg
Why did the Battle occur at Gettysburg and not Harrisburg? The Union and Confederate armies met up in Gettysburg unintentionally
Who was the only woman to be killed in 'battle' at Gettysburg? How did she die? Jenni Wade ~ She was shot in the heart by a stray bullet that came through a window in her kitchen
Why was it important for the Union army to capture Vicksburg? Gain control of the Mississippi River. (Anaconda Plan)
What methods did Grant use to try and capture Vicksburg? Burn the city, tunnel through, sail ironclad into, shoot people by cannons over into the city
Why did Northerners call July 4th, 1863 the best battle since 1776? They captured the South and got two wins back-to-back
What battleship began the modern Navy? The Ironclads
What was the Hunley? The first successful submarine made by the South to end the Union blockade at the Charleston Harbor.
What happened to the Hunley? It was used only one time, and everyone on board died. The submarine was lost for 136 years
What was Abraham Lincoln's promise when he was re-elected in 1864? He was going to end the war soon
When/Where did the Civil War end? April 9th, 1865 in Appomattox, Virginia
Who won the Civil War? The Union won and the United States of America was reunited ~ Lee surrendered because he knew he wasn't going to win
Who was Mary Chesnut? A woman who wrote a diary of first hand accounts of what life was like before, during and after the Civil War
Who was William Carney? The flag bearer for the 54th Massachusetts regiment and the first African American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Who was Clara Barton? Often referred to as the "Angel of the Battlefield", she was a Civil War nurse who established the American Red Cross
Who was Matthew Brady? Famous Civil War photographer who eventually went blind
Who was Ely Parker? He served as Ulysses S. Grant's personal secretary during the war and prepared the surrender documents for Grant and Lee at Appomattox
Who was Stand Waite? A Georgian who was the last Confederate General to surrender
Who was Major Robert Anderson? The man who stood inside Fort Sumpter and refused to surrender his position
Who was General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard? The man who was outside Fort Sumpter attempting to overtake Robert Anderson's position
Who was Ulysses S. Grant? The Union General of the Army of the Potomac
Who was Robert E. Lee? The Confederate General of the Army of Northern Virginia
Who was Abraham Lincoln? The president of the Union and the man who established the Emancipation Proclamation
Who was Jefferson Davis? The president of the Confederate States of America
Who was Alexander Stephens? The Vice-President of the CSA
Who was Robert Toombs? The Secretary of State for the CSA
Who was John B. Gordon? The man who was wounded at the Battle of Antietam and who was later the Governor of Georgia
Who was George McClellan? A general during the Civil War
Who was Rose Greenhow? A woman who was shipwrecked and the weight of the 2,000 dollars worth of gold in her dress pulled her under
Who was Stonewall Jackson? Confederate commander who was accidentally shot by one of his men at the Battle of Chancellorsville
Who was General James Longstreet? One of the Generals for the Army of Northern Virginia, under Robert E. Lee
Who was William T. Sherman? The Union general sent to destroy the city of Atlanta
Who was Wilmer McLean? The Civil War started in his front parlor, and ended in his new house in Appomattox
Battle Large scale combat between two armed forces
Blockade The closing off of a city to traffic and communication
Border State A slave state that does not secede but instead remains loyal to the Union
Cartridge Box Leather box in which a soldier carried his bullets
Casualty A person killed, wounded, or captured during a war
Chloroform Liquid used to dull the pain of wounds
Civil War A war between two sections or groups within a country
Confederacy Collection of 11 southern states who had broken away from the American Government, often called the CSA
Conscription (Draft) The selection of citizens for mandatory military service
Dixie Slang term for Confederacy
Dysentary Diarrhea, often a fatal disease of the intestines
Emancipation The formal release of slaves from bondage
Hardtack Thick, hard cracker eaten by Civil War soldiers
Haversack Cloth bag used by soldiers for rations
Ironclas A ship covered with iron plates
Mini Ball The standard rifle bullet used in the Civil War
Rations Military term for food
Salt Pork Much like beef jerky, dried and salted pork
Sutler Dry goods salesman, often did business from a wagon, often cheated soldiers, like a traveling convenience store
Union Collection of 23 northern states, also called the U.S.A.
Created by: paige123