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ALH Chapter 10

Musculoskeletal

TermDefinition
articulation place of union between two or more bones, joint
cancellous latticelike arrangement of bony plates occurring at the ends of long bones
cruciate ligaments ligaments that cross each other, forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles
fleshy attachements muscle fibers arise directly from bone
fibrous attachments connective tissue fibers form a cord or strap, tendon
ligaments flexible bands of fibrous tissue that are highly adapted for resisting strains and are one of the principle mechanical factors that hold bones close together
sutures lines of junction between two bones especially the skull
fontanel soft spot in infants
ankylo stiffness, bent, crooked
kypho humpback
lamino lamina
lordo curve, swayback
myelo bone marrow, spinal cord
acromio acromion (projection of the scapula)
brachio arm
calcane calcaneum (wrist bone)
carpo carpus (wrist bone)
costo ribs
dactyl fingers, toes
metacarpo metacarpus (hand bones)
metatars metatarsus (foot bones)
radio radiation, x-ray
spondylo vertebrae
leriomyo smooth muscle
rhabdo rod-shaped (striated) muscle
rhabdomyo striated muscle
chondro cartilage
fascio band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
synovo synovial membrane, synovial fluid
-asthenia weakness, debility
-physis growth
-porosis porous
syn union, joined together, joined
fracture broken bone
closed (simple) fracture bone is broken but no open wound exists
open (compound) fracture broken bone and an external wound that leads to the site of fracture
complicated fracture broken bone has injured an internal organ
comminuted fracture bone has broken or splintered into pieces
impacted fracture bone is broken and one end is wedged into the interior of another bone
incomplete fracture the line of the fracture does not completely transverse the entire bone
greenstick fracture the broken bone does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone. One side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent
Colles fracture break at the lower end of the radius occurs just above the wrist. Causes displacement of the hand
hairline fracture minor fracture in which all portions of the bone are in perfect alignment
pathological (spontaneous) fracture usually caused by a disease such as neoplasm or osteoporosis
osteomyelitis bone infection
sequestra infected bone
Paget disease/osteitis deformans chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of the bones
Osteoporosis common metabolic disorder in the elderly, particularly in postmenopausal women/ over 60. decrease in bone density
scoliosis C-shaped curvature of the spine
kyphosis humpback/hunchback
lordosis swayback/ caused by increased weight of the abdominal cavity (obesity/pregnancy)
arthritis general term for many joint diseases
rheumatoid arthritis systemic disease characterized by inflammatory changes in joints and their related structures resulting in crippling deformities
osteoarthritis/degenerative joint disease most common form of arthritis. progressive, degenerative disease that occurs when the protective cartilage at the end of the bones wear down
Herbeden nodes classic bony enlargement
gout/gout arthritis metabolic disease caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the blood which are deposited in joints and soft tissue near joints
muscular dystrophy characterized by gradual atrophy and weakening of muscle tissue
Duchenne dystrophy affects children. loss of muscle function of skeletal and cardiac muscle. die before age 30
myasthenia gravis neuromuscular disorder. fluctuating weakness of certain skeletal muscle groups. destruction of the receptors in the synaptic region that respond to acetylcholine.
ankylosis stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and the median nerve pass)
claudication lameness, limping
contracture fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, facia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
crepitation dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destrcution
ganglion cyst fluid-filled tumor that most commonly develops along the tendons or joint of the wrists or hands, but may also appear in the feet
hemarthrosis effusion of blood into a joint cavity
herniated disk rupture of a vertebral disk's center through its outer edge and back toward the spinal canal with pressure on the adjacent spinal nerve that results in pain, numbness, or weakness in one or both legs
hypotonia loss of muscular tones or diminished resistance to passive stretching
multiple myeloma malignant tumor of plasma cells in the bone marrow
rickets form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency
sequestrum fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
spondylolidthesis any slipping of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
spondylosis degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
subluxation partial or incomplete dislocation
talipes equinovarus congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side/ clubfoot
electromyograohy use of electrical stimulation to diagnose the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them
traction bone immobilization by application of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture
bursectomy excision of bursa (padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue, usually in the vicinity of the joints)
lamina part of vertebral arch
sequestrectomy excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
synovectomy excision of a synovial membrane
discography radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures with injection of a contrast medium
lumbosacral spinal radiography radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine
myelography radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions cause by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
scintigraphy nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide
Created by: Gianna B