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ALH Chapter 11

Urinary System

TermDefinition
peritoneum serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
erythropoietin hormone that acts on bone marrow to stimulate production of red blood cells when blood oxygen levels are low
rugae small folds in the bladder that expand as the bladder fills
trigone triangular area at the base of the bladder
urinary meatus urethral opening
albumino albumin, protein
azoto nitrogenous compounds
cysto bladder
vesico bladder
glomerulo golmerulus
kali potassium
litho stone
meato opening
oligo scanty
pyo pus
pyelo renal pelvis
retro backward, behind
pyelonoephritis kidney infection/nephritis. inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis.
nephralgia pain in the kidneys
pyuria pus in the urine
hematuria blood in the urine
glomerulonephritis inflammation of the glomerular membrane in the nephrons, causing it to become leaky.
proteinuria protein in the urine
calculi stones
nephrolothasis kidney stones
ureterolithasis kidney stones that lodge in the ureters
colic intense throbbing pain
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy calculi are pulverized using concentrated ultrasound waves directed at the stones using a machine outside of the body
percutaneous nephrolithotomy small incision in the skin opening the kidney. nephroscope inserted to to locate and remove the stone
acute tubular necrosis the tubular portion of the nephron is injured by a decrease in blood supply (ischemic) or after the ingestion of toxic chemicals (nephrotoxic)
oliguria scanty urine production
anura absence of urine
bladder neck obstruction (BNO) blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
cystocele prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina
dysuria painful urination
end-stage renal disease kidney failure
enuresis involuntary discharge of urine
fistula abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
hydronephrosis abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calcyes of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
interstitial cystitis (IC) chronic inflammation of the bladder wall that is not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy
nephrotic syndrome loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin, through urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
neurogenic bladder impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction
polycystic kidney disease (PKD) inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter
Wilms tumor rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
peritoneal dialysis type of dialysis in which toxic substances are removed from the body by using the peritoneal membrane as the filter by perfusing (flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution
nephropexy fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
nephrostomy the passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when the ureters are unable to do so
urethrotomy incision of a urethral stricture
electromyography (EMG) measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
culture & sensitivity (C&S) determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics
intravenous pyelography (IVP) imaging of the urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium
voiding cystourethrography X-ray of the bladder and urethra performed before, during and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
Created by: Gianna B