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Human Geo Unit 7

"Stages of Growth"model is a theoretical model for the growth of information technology (IT) in a business or similarorganization
Acid Rain a growing environmental peril that severely damages plant and animallife caused by oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that are released into theatmosphere
adaptive strategies The unique way in which each culture uses it's particular physical environment;Those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life – Food,clothing, shelter, and defense
Agglomeration a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities.refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from closeproximity
Agglomeration Economics savings which arise from the concentration of industries in urban areasand their location close to linked activities.
Air Pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materialsthat cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, ordamages the natural environment, into the atmosphere
Alfred Weber a German economist, sociologist and theoretician of culture whose workwas influential in the development of modern economic geography
Aluminum Industry (Factors of Production, Location) aluminum business: manufacturers of aluminum considered as a group
assemblyline production,Fordism Mass production which allowed for the inexpensive production ofconsumer goods.
break of bulk point a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred fromone carrier to another. the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloadedand put on trains, trucks or smaller riverboats for inland distribution
Canadian industrialheartland the central region of a country or continent; especially a region that isimportant to a country or to a culture
Carrier Efficiency An organization that provides communications and networking services. Acommunications and networking "service provider."
comparative advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, a firm, or a country) toproduce a particular good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another party
culturalconvergence is the contact and interaction of one country to another
cumulative causation process through which tendencies for economic growth are self–reinforcing; anexpression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regionsover less–advantaged peripheral regions
deindustrialization process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions withcheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to aservice economy and to work through a high period of highunemployment
dependency theory a structuralism theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development.political and economic relations between countries have controlled and limit the extent towhich regions can develop
development The extent to which a society is making effective use of both human and nature
De–Glomeration the process of industrial deconcentration in response to technologicaladvances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition
economic sectors Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary and quinary
economies of scale The characteristics of a production process in which an increase in thescale of the firm causes a decrease in the long run average cost of eachunit
ecotourism tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to helppreserve nature
energy resources are discovered to be hydro, solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, coal,crude oil, natural gas, and ocean–wave motion and are used to producepower
entrepot A warehouse, depot; A commercial center, a place where merchandiseis sent for additional processing and distribution
export processing zone zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi–periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory and tradearrangements to attract foreign trade and investment
fixed costs are business expenses that are not dependent on the activities of thebusiness They tend to be time–related, such as salaries or rents beingpaid per month. This is in contrast to variable costs, which are volume–related (and are paid per quantity).
footloose industry term for an industry that can be placed and located at any locationwithout effect from factors such as resources or transport.
foreign directinvestment investment of foreign assets into domestic structures, equipment, and organizations
Four Tigers refers to the highly developed economies of: * Hong Kong * Singapore *South Korea * Taiwan These regions were the first newly industrializedcountries, noted for maintaining exceptionally high growth rates andrapid industrialization
gender the wide set of characteristics that are seen to distinguish between male and femaleentities, extending from one's biological sex to, in humans, one's social role
Greenhouse effect the blanket–like effect of the atmosphere in the heating of the Earth'ssurface; shortwave insulation passes through the "glass" of theatmospheric "greenhouse" heats the surface is converted to long–waveradiation that traps heat which raises earth temps
Gross DomesticProduct The total value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given year
Gross nationalproduct total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. Itincludes all goods and services produced by corporations and individuals.
growth poles theory is that economic development is not uniform over an entire region, but insteadtakes place around a specific spot
Heartland the central region of a country or continent; especially a region that isimportant to a country or to a culture
HumanDevelopmentIndex an indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by the UN combingincome literacy education and life expectancy
industrial location theory theory attempting to explain why industries are found to have located inthe places they are found. Relate locational factors to the goals of theindustry such as minimizing costs (least–cost location) or maximizingprofits
industrial revolution a period from the 18th century where major changes in agriculture,manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on thesocioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom,then subsequently spreading throughout Europe
infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for theoperation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilitiesnecessary for an economy to function
international division oflabor economic specialization is the specialization of cooperative labor inspecific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase theproductivity of labour
labor–intensive Requiring a great deal of work, especially physical and manual effort
least–cost location A site chosen for industrial development where total costs are theoretically attheir lowest, as opposed to location at the point of maximum revenue.
Levels ofdevelopment per capita levels of income, the structure of the economy, and various social indicators aretypically used as measures for determining whether countries are developing or developed.
major manufacturingregions the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by theminimization of three critical expenses; labor, transportation andagglomeration
manufacturing exportszones a feature of economic development in peripheral countries whereby thehost country establishes areas with favorable tax, regulatory and tradearrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations. goodsdestined for global market.
maquiladora zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goodsto the U.S. market. low wage workers in the primarily foreign ownedfactories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and thenexport finished goods
market orientation A business approach or philosophy that focuses on identifying and meeting thestated or hidden needs or wants of customers
Measures ofdevelopment A policy whereby a major power uses economic and political means to perpetuate orextend its influence over underdeveloped nations or areas
model periphery keeps wages low there. The result may well be a balance of payments crisis atthe periphery
multiplier effect is the idea that an initial amount of spending (usually by the government)leads to increased consumption spending and so results in an increasein national income greater than the initial amount of spending.
NAFTA an agreement for free trade between the United States and Canada andMexico; became effective in 1994 for ten years
neocolonialism The entrenchment of the colonial order, such as trade and investment under a new guise.
outsourcing The transfer of a business function to an external service provider
ozone depletion a slow, steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume ofozone in Earth's stratosphere (ozone layer) since the late 1970s, and amuch larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth'spolar regions during the same period
Physical quality oflife index is an attempt to measure the quality of life or well–being of a country
Plant location (supplies,"just in time" delivery) is an inventory strategy that strives to improve a business's return oninvestment by reducing in–process inventory and associated carryingcosts
post Fordist production World economic system characterized by a more flexible set of productionpractices in which goods are not mass produced; instead production has beenaccelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies thatshift production, outsourcing it a
postindustrial is a society in which an economic transition has occurred from amanufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusionof national and global capital, and mass privatization
purchasing powerparity The theory that, in the long run, identical products and services in different countriesmeasured by the quantity and quality of products and services it can buy
resource crisis a substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economicallyand technologically feasible to assess and is socially acceptable to use
resource orientation the position of substances in the environment useful and economicallyfeasible and socially acceptable to use
Rimland concept championed by Nicholas John Spykman to describe themaritime fringe of a country or continent; in particular, the denselypopulated western, southern, and eastern edges of the Eurasiancontinent
Rostow, W. W. He wrote in defense of free enterprise economics, particularly in developing nations.famous especially for writing the book The Stages of Economic Growth: A non–communistmanifesto which became a classic text in several fields of social sciences
special economiczones(China) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberalthan a country's typical economic laws
substitution principle is focused on the substitution of a product, service or process to anotherthat is more efficient or beneficial in some way while retaining the samefunctionality
technology gap The presence in a country of a technology that other countries do not have, so that it canproduce and export a good whose cost might otherwise be higher than abroad
technology transfer The sharing of technological information through education and training; The use of aconcept or product from one technology to solve a problem in an unrelated one
Third world underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
Threshold/range The number of potential customers necessary to support the sale of a particular goodor service. For example, it takes relatively few people in an area to support the sale ofa carton of milk (because so many people buy milk, and because they buy it so freq
time–space compression a term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the socialand psychological effects of living in a world i which time spaceconvergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity
topocide the deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, sothat its earlier landscape and character are destroyed
trade(complementarity) the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or internationalmarkets) of goods and services
transnational corporation A multinational corporation (MNC) also called multinational enterprise (MNE),is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers servicesin more than one country
ubiquitous The state of being everywhere at any given time
variable costs costs that change directly with the amount of production
weight–gaining These industries typically locate closer to markets than to their sources forcomponents because transportation costs are before manufacture than after
weight–losing These industries typically locate closer to their sources for components andraw materials than to their markets because transportation costs are less aftermanufacture than before.
world cities generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system
World systemstheory is a view of the recent five centuries of world history, historical and current applications ofsome, but by no means all, tenets of Marxism as well as ideas by a range of theorists fromAdam Smith to Max Weber, to studying international relations
Created by: thooper



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