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Stack #219205

Phlebotomy Chap 6 The Blood pg198-214

QuestionAnswer
Blood has been referred to as "_?_ _?_ _?_ _?_"? The river of life
_?_ is Flowing throughout the circulatory system delivering nutrients, oxygen and other substances to the cells and transporting waste products away from the cells for elimination. Blood
Blood is a mixture of _?_ and _?_ that is about five times thicker than _?_, salty to the taste, and slightly _?_ with a pH of about 7.4. mixture of fluid and cells, thicker than water, slightly alkaline
Define what pH is? the degree of acidity or alkalinity on a scale of 1 to 14, with 7 being neutral.
In vivo (in the living body) the fluid portion of the blood is called what? Plasma
And the cellular portion of the blood is referred to as the _?_ _?_. formed elements
An average adult weighing 70kg (154 pounds) has a blood volume of about how much? 5 liters (5.3 quarts)
Of the 5.3 quarts of blood volume how much is plasma? and how much is formed elements? 55% plasma, 45% formed elements
True or False, since blood volume is 55% plasma and 45% formed elements it can be said that approximately one half of blood specimen will be serum or plasma and the other half will be blood cells. TRUE.
_?_ personnel typically prefer specimens that contain roughly _?_ times the amount of sample required to perform the test; so the test cam be _?_ if needed, with some to spare. Testing personnel,2.5 times, can be repeated
So when a test that requires 1 mL of serum or plasma would require 5-mL blood specimen because only half the specimen will be fluid while a test that requires 1mL of whole blood would require a _?_ mL specimen. 2.5mL
pg 199 Plasma Normal plasma is a clear,pale-yellow fluid that is nearly _?_ water (H20) and _?_ solutes (dissolved substances) pg 199 Plasma90% water and 10% solutes
Composition of the plasma solute(dissolved substances) includes 3 gases name them. pg 199 Solute includes the following:*Gases such as: Oxygen(O2),carbon dioxide(CO2),nitrogen
Composition of the plasma solute(dissolved substances)includes 4 minerals name them pg 199 *minerals: sodium(Na),potassium(K),calcium(Ca)and magnesium(Mg)
In plasma solute the mineral sodium helps maintain _?_ balance, pH. maintain fluid balance
In plasma solute the minerals potassium(K) and calcium(Ca) balances are necessary for normal _?_ action necessary for normal heart action
In plasma solute the mineral potassium(K) is essential for normal _?_ activity and the conduction of _?_ impulses. normal muscle activity and the conduction of nerve impulses
In plasma solute the mineral Calcium(Ca) is needed for proper _?_ and tooth formation,_?_ conduction, and _?_ contraction. In addition calcium is essential to the clotting process. proper bone,nerve conduction,muscle contraction
Composition of the plasma solute(dissolved substances)includes 2 nutrients which supply enery please name them? pg 199 *Plasma nutrients: carbohydrates such as glucose,lipids (fats) such as triglycerides and cholesterol
Composition of the plasma solute(dissolved substances)includes 3 proteins name them pg 199 plasma proteins: albumin, which is made by the liver and functions to help regulate osmotic pressure,or the tendency of blood to attract water, antibodies which combat infection and, fibrinogen which is also made by liver & functions in clotting process.
Composition of the plasma solute(dissolved substances)includes 3 waste products of metabolism name them pg 199 plasma waste products: Urea (BUN), creatinine, and uric acid
Composition of the plasma solute(dissolved substances)includes 3 other substances name them pg 199 plasma other substances: vitamins, hormones and drugs
Formed elements: Erythrocytes (e-rith'ro-sites) or red blood cells (RBCs) are the most numerous cells in the blood, averaging 4.5-5 millin per cubic millimeter of blood. Their main 2 functions are what? 1. To carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells 2. they also carry carbon dioxide from the cells back to the lungs to be exhaled.
the main component of RBCs is _?_ (Hgb or Hb) an iron containing pigment that enables them to transport oxygen and _?_ _?_ and also gives them their _?_ color. pg200 Hemoglobin (hgb or Hb), transport oxygen and carbon dioxide, gives them their RED color.
Where are RBC's produced in the body? In the bone marrow
RBCs are formed with a _?_, which they lose as they mature and enter the bloodstream. Normally a few reticulocytes(re-tik'u-lo-sits) or _?_ (immature RBCs that still contain remnants of material from their nuclear stage) also enter the _?_. reticulocytes or RETICS, also enter the bloodstream.
Mature RBCs have a life span of approximately _?_ days, after which they begin to disintegrate and are removed from the bloodstream by the _?_ and _?_. 120 days, removed from the bloodstream by the spleen and liver.
RBCs are described a anucleur. What does anucleur mean? anucleur (no nucleus)
RBCs are also described as biconcave (indented on both sides)disks approximately 7-8 microns in diameter. RBCs have _?_ (within blood vessels)function which means they do their job within the bloodstream. intravascular(within blood vessels)
Formed Elements: Leukocytes or _?_ (WBCs) contain a nucleus. The average adult has from 5,000 to _?_ WBCs per cubic millimeter of blood. WBCs are formed in the bone _?_ and Lyphatic tissue. White blood cells,5,000 to 10,000 WBCs, formed in bone marrow
Leukocytes are said to have _?_ (outside the blood vessels)function because they are able to leave the bloodstream and do their job in the tissues. Extravascular (outside the blood vessels),
WBCs may appear in the bloodstream for only _?_ to _?_ hours but reside in the tissues for days, months or even years. The life span of WBCs varies with the _?_. 6 to 8 hours, varies with the type
The process by which WBCs are able to slip through the walls of capillaries to enter the tissues is called _?_. diapedesis, (di'a-ped-e'sis) Dia (greek for through) ped from "pedan"(leap) esis (condition of state)
What is the main function of WBC's to neutralize or destroy pathogens.
Some WBCs accomplish functions by phagocytosis (fag'o-si-to'sis) which is a process in which a _?_ or _?_ matter is surrounded, engulfed and destroyed by the _?_. a pathogen or foreign matter, destroyed by the leukocytes WBCs.
WBCs also use phagocytosis to remove disintegrated _?_. disintegrated tissue.
Some WBCs produce _?_ that destroy pathogens indirectly or release substances that attack foreign matter. produce antibodies
There are different types of WBCs each identified by size, shape of the nucleus, and whether of not there are _?_ present in the cytoplasm when the cells in the a blood smear are stained with a special blood stain called _?_ stain pg200 Fig 6-14 granules present, Wright's stain
WBCs containing easily visible granules are called _?_ WBCs that lack granules or have extremely fine granules that are not easily seen are called _?_ granulocytes, agranulocytes
Formed Elements: Granulocytes can be differentiated by the color of their _?_ when stained with _?_ stain. color of their granules, stained with Wrights stain
Name the 3 types of granulocytes see fig6-15 pg 201. granulocytes: 1.neutrophils, eosinophils(eos) 3.basophils (basos)
Which 3 types of granulocytes are normally the most numerous WBC in adults. Neutrophils are the most numerous
A typical neutrophil is a polymorphonuclear, meaning that it has several lobes or _?_ and is also called a poly, _?_, or seg for short. or segments, PMN
The presence of increased numbers of neutrophils is associated with what type of infection? bacterial infection
Formed Elements: Agranulocytes there are 2 types see fig 6-16 pg 201. Name the two types. Agranulocytes: monocytes (monos)are the largest WBC and lymphocytes(lymphs)
Lymphocytes are normally the wnd most numerous WBC and the most numerous agranulocyte. Name the 2 main types of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes: are T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes.
TBL6-5 pg 202 Types of Normal White Blood cells (WBCs) TBL6-5 pg 202 Types of Normal White Blood cells (WBCs)
please identify the type of WBC that neutrophils are? Granulocytes
please identify the type of WBC that Monocytes are? Agranulocytes
please identify the type of WBC that Basophils are? Granulocytes
please identify the type of WBC that Eosinophils are? Granulocytes
please identify the type of WBC that lyphocytes are? Agranulocytes
Name the average percentage of WBC total (adults) of lymphocytes? 15-30%
Name the average percentage of WBC total (adults) of Basophils? less than 1%
Name the average percentage of WBC total (adults) of monocytes? 1-7%
Name the average percentage of WBC total (adults) of Neutrophils? 65%
Name the average percentage of WBC total (adults) of Eosinophils? up to 3%
Give the description and staining characteristics for this WBC type Granulocytes:neutrophils? Most numerous WBC segmented or multilobed nucleus. Fine textured lavender-stained granules.
Give the description and staining characteristics for this WBC type Granulocytes:Eosinophils? Bead-like granules that stain bright orange-red. Two lobed nucleus.
Give the description and staining characteristics for this WBC type Granulocytes:Basophils? Least numerous WBC Large dark blue staining granules that often obscure a typically 2-shaped nucleus.
Give the description and staining characteristics for this WBC type Agranulocytes: Monocytes Largest WBC fine gray-blue cytoplasm and a large dark-staining nucleus
Give the description and staining characteristics for this WBC type Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes Second most numerous WBC typically have a large round dark-purple nucleus that occupies most of the cell and is surrounded by a thin rim of pale blue cytoplasm
Give the function and life span for this WBC type Granulocytes:neutrophils? Function: Destroy pathogens by phagocytosisLife Span: 6 hours to a few days
Give the function and life span for this WBC type Granulocytes:Eosinophils? Function: Ingest and detoxify foreign protein help turn off immune reactions increase with allergies and pinworm infestationsLife Span: 8 to 12 days
Give the function and life span for this WBC type Granulocytes:Basophils? tFunction: Release histamine and heparin which enhance the inflammatory responseLife Span: thought to live several days
Give the function and life span for this WBC type Agranulocytes: Monocytes Function:Destroy pathogens by phagocytosis first line of defense in the inflammatory processLife Span: several months
Give the function and life span for this WBC type Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes Function: T lymphocytes directly attack infected cells B lymphocytes rise to plasma cells that produce immunoglobulins (antibodies) that are released into the bloodstream to circulate and attack foreign cells Life Span: Varies few hours to a # of years
Monocytes are sometimes called _?_ after they leave the bloodstream? macrophages
Formed elements: Thrombocytes(throm'bo-sits) are better known as _?_ (see fig 6-17 pg 203) are the smallest of the formed elements. Platelets
Platelets are actually parts of a large cell called a _?_ which is found in the _?_ marrow. Megakaryocyte (meg'a-kar'e-o-sit') which is found in the bone marrow
The number of platelets in the blood (platelet count) of the average adult ranges from 150,000 to _?_ per cubic millimeter. 150,000 to 400,000
Platelets are essential to coagulation (the blood _?_ process)and are the _?_ cell on the scene when an injury occurs. (see hemostasis) the life span of a platelet is about _?_ days. the blood clotting process, first cell, life span is about 10 days.
Please Identify which type of WBC is the largest WBC? Agranulocytes: Monocytes
Please identify which type of WBC is the most numerous WBC? Granulocytes:Neutrophils
Please identify which type of WBC is the second most numerous ? Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes
Please identify which type of WBC is the bead like granules? Granulocytes:Eosinophils
Please identify which type of WBC is the least numerous? Granulocytes: Basophils
Pg 203 Blood Type: An individual blood type is also called a blood group is inherited and determined by the type of _?_ present on his or her red blood cells. Antigen present
Some blood type antigens cause formation of _?_ to the opposite blood type. antibodies
If a person receives a blood transfusion of the wrong type, the person's antibodies may react with the donor RBCs and cause them to _?_ (clump together) and _?_ (disintegrate) agglutinate (a-gloo'tin-ate), lyse (lis)
An adverse reaction between donor cells and a recipient, which can be fatal is called a _?_ reaction. A person will not normally produce antibodies against his or her own RBC antigens. Transfusion reaction
The most commonly used methos of blood typing recognizes _?_ blood group systems: Name them. recognizes two blood group systems: the ABO system and the Rh factor system
ABO Blood Group System recognizes name the 4 blood types,based on the presence of absence of two antigens identified as _?_ and _?_. A,B,AB, and O / two antigens A and B
And individual who is type A blood has the _?_ antigen? type B blood has _?_ antigen? A antigen/ B antigen
An individual who is type AB blood has _?_ antegen? Both antigens
An individual who is type O blood has _?_ antigen? Has neither A nor B
What is the most common blood type? Type O
What is the least common blood type? Type AB
Unique to the ABO system are preformed antibodies (also called agglutinins) in a person's blood that are directed against the _?_ blood type. opposite blood type
Type A blood has an antibody(agglutinin) directed against type _?_ called anti- _?_.Type B has anti- _?_ Type B, anti-B/ anti A
Type O has both anti-A and anti-B and type AB has what? Ab has neither antigens
See tab 6-6 pg 203 ABO Blood Group system See tab 6-6 pg 203 ABO Blood Group system
If you have blood type O what is your RBC antigen and your plasma Antibodies?(agglutinins) RBC Antigen: neitherPlasma antibodies: AntiA and Anti-B
If you have blood type A what is your RBC antigen and your plasma Antibodies ? RBC Antigen: APlasma antibodies: Anti-B
If you have blood type AB what is your RBC antigen and your plasma Antibodies ? RBC Antigen: A and BPlasma antibodies: Neither Anti-A or Anti-B
If you have blood type B what is your RBC antigen and your plasma Antibodies ? RBC Antigen: BPlasma antibodies: Anti-A
Name the Blood type that fits this criteria:RBC Antigen: BPlasma antibodies: Anti-A blood type B
Name the Blood type that fits this criteria:RBC Antigen: neitherPlasma antibodies: AntiA and Anti-B blood type O
Name the Blood type that fits this criteria:RBC Antigen: APlasma antibodies: Anti-B blood type A
Name the Blood type that fits this criteria:RBC Antigen: A and BPlasma antibodies: Neither Anti-A or Anti-B blood type AB
Individual with type AB blood were once referred to as universal recipients because they have neither A nor B _?_ to the RBC antigens and can theoretically receive any ABO type blood A nor B antibody
Type O blood individuals were once called universal donors because they have neither A nor B _?_ on their RBCs and in an emergency their blood can theoretically be given to anyone. antigen
However type O does contain plasma antibodies to both A and B antigens, and when given to an A or B type recipient, it can cause a mild _?_ reaction. to avoid reactions, patients are now given type specific blood even in emergencies. mild transfusion reaction
RH BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM PG 204 is based upon the presence or absence of an RBC antigen called the D antigen, also known as _?_ factor. RH factor
An individual with the D antigen present on red blood cells is said to be positive for the Rh factor or _?_ _?_ Rh positive (Rh+)
An individual whose RBCs lack the D antigen is said to be _?_ _?_ Rh negative (Rh-)
A patient must receive blood with the correct Rh type as well as the correct ABO type. Approximately _?_% of the population is Rh+ 85%
Unlike the ABO system,antibodies to the Rh factor (anti-Rh antibodies) are not preformed in the blood of Rh- individuals. However, an Rh- individual who receives Rh+ blood can become sensitized. This means that the individual may produce antibodies against the Rh factor.
An Rh- woman who is carrying a Rh+ fetus may become sensitized by the RBCs of the fetus, most commonly by leakeage of the _?_ cells into the mother's circulation during childbirth. fetal cells
this leakage of fetal cells may lead to the destruction of RBCs of a sebsequent Rh+ fetus because Rh antibodies produced by the mother can cross the _?_ into the fetal circulation. when this occurs it is called what? cross the placenta/ hemolytic disease of the new born (HDN)
An unsensitized Rh- woman can be given Rh immune _?_ (Rhlg) such as RhoGam at certain times during her pregnancy and soon sfter and Rh+ baby's birth. Rhlg will destroy Rh+ fetal cells that may have entered her bloodstream and prevent sensitization Rh immune globulin
Compatibility Testind / Crossmatchother factors in an individuals blood can cause adverse reactions during a blood transfusion even with the correct ABO and Rh type blood. For this reason a compatibility test or crossmatch. What is crossmatch? Crossmatch is a test to determine suitability of the donor and recipient blood to be mixed together.
How is a crossmatch test performed? This is performed using the patient's serum and cells as well as the donor's serum and cell before a unit of blood is determined compatible for transfusion.
A recent invented _?_ blood made by chemically altering donor blood, as being tested on humans. this blood is designed to be given to individuals of any blood type and poses no risk to transmitting disease Artificial blood
pg 204-205 Types of blood Specimens pg 204-205 Types of blood Specimens
Serum, is blood that has been removed from the body will _?_ or clot within 30 to 60 minutes.The clot consists of blood cells enmeshed in a fibrin network (see Hemostasis) the remaining fluid portion is called _?_ Coagulate,/ serum
True or False. Serum can be separated from the clot by centrifugation (spinning clotted blood at high rpms in a machine called a centrifuge) True.
Describe what normal fasting serum looks like? is a clear, pale-yellow fluid
Serum has the same composition as plasma except it does not contain _?_ because the _?_ was used in the formation of the clot. fibrinogen/ fibrinogen
True or False. Not many laboratory tests are preformed on serum? False. Many laboratory tests are performed on serum especially chemistry and immunology tests.
pg 205 Plasma: Not all tests can be performed on serum. Most coagulation tests cannot be performed on serum because the coagulation factors, particularly fibrinogen are used up in the process of _?_ formation clot
Some chemistry tests such as ammonia and potassium cannot be preformed on serum because clotting releases these _?_ from the cells. substances
Some chemistry tests are need STAT to respond to an _?_ situations having to wait 30 minutes or more for a specimen to clot before centrifuging it to get _?_ would be unacceptable. emergency situations, to get serum,
If clotting is prevented, _?_ factors and other substances affected by clotting are preserved, and the specimen can be centrifuged immediately. Coagulation factors
What substance do you add to prevent blood from clotting? you add a anticoagulant
Adding and anticoagulant initially creates a whole blood specimen. When a whole blood specimen is centrifuged it will separate into 3 distinct layers.name the 3 layers. Fig 6-18 pg 205 bottom layer of red blood cells, a thin, fluffy looking whitish colored middle layer of WBCs and platelets referred to as the buffy coat and a top layer of clear liquid called plasma that be separated from the cells and used for testing.
When Whole blood specimen is centrifuged the whitish colored middle layer of WBCs and platelets is referred to as the _?_ _?_ buffy coat
When Whole blood specimen is centrifuged the bottom layer is made up of what cells? Red blood cells
When Whole blood specimen is centrifuged the top layer of clear liquid is called ? plasma
Normal fasting _?_ is a clear to slightly hazy, pale yellow fluid visually the same as serum. plasma
the major difference between plasma and serum is that plasma contains _?_ Many laboratory test can be performed on either serum or plasma. fibrinogen
pg206 Whole Blood; Some tests including most hematology tests and some chemistry tests such as glycohemoglobin cannot be performed on _?_ or _?_ these tests need to be preformed on _?_ _?_ (blood in the same form as it is in the bloodstream) serum or plasma/ whole blood
This means that the blood specimen must not be allowed to _?_ or _?_ allowed to clot or separate
To obtain a whole blood specimen it is necessary to add and _?_. In addition because components will separate if the specimen is allowed to stand undistrubed, the specimen must be mixed for a minimum of 2 minutes immediately prior to performing the test. anticoagulant
Name the following blood disorder:an abnormal reduction in the number of RBCs in the circulating blood Anemia
Name the following blood disorder:an increase in WBCs characterized by the presence of a large number of abnormal forms Leukemia
Name the following blood disorder: an abnormal increase in WBCs in the circulating blood Leukocytosis
Name the following blood disorder: an abnormal decrease in WBCs Leukopenia
Name the following blood disorder: an abnormal increase in RBCs polysythemia
Name the following blood disorder: increased number of platelets thrombocytosis
Name the following blood disorder: decreased number of platelets Thrombocytopenia
see box 6-4 pg 206 Examples of Diagnostic Tests for blood Disorders. see box 6-4 pg 206 Examples of Diagnostic Tests for blood Disorders.
Name 11 examples of diagnostic tests for blood disorders. *ABO &Rh type*Bone marrow exam*Complete blood count CBC *crossmatch *differential *eosinophil(Eos)count *erthrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR)*ferritin *hematocrit (Hct)*Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) *Hemogram
continue to name me 4 examples of diagnostic tests for blood disorders. study pg 207 Fig6-19 *indices(MCH,MCV,MCHC)*Iron (fe)*reticulocyte(retic)count *Total iron bondng capacity (TIBC)
Hemostasis is the process by which the body stops the _?_ of blood from the vascular system after injury. stops the leakage of blood
If an injury occurs to a blood vessel the hemostatic process is set in motion to _?_ the injury repair the injury
Hemostasis is also called the _?_ process, proceeds in four stages. Stages 1 & 2 are referred to as _?_ _?_ and stages 3 &4 are referred to as _?_ _?_, coagulation process,stages 1&2 are referred to as primary hmostasis and 3&4 are referred to as secondary hemostasis
Primary Hemostasis Stage one is called? Vasoconstriction
Primary Hemostasis stage two is called? Platelet plug formation
Define what vasoconstriction is? The damaged vessel constricts (narrows) to decrease the flow of blood to the injured area
Define what Platelet plug formation is ? Injury to the blood vessel exposes protein material in the basement membrane contact of material causes the platelets to degranulate and stick to one another & adhere to the injured area forming a mass called a platelet plug.
When platelets degranulate and stick to one another this is called? Platelet aggregation
When platelets adhere to the injured area what is this called? Platelet adhesion
normal platelet plug formation depends on 3 factors please name these factors. an adequate concentration of platelets in the blood (determined by a platelet count)/ normal functioning of platelets and blood vessel integrity
Why would a bleeding time (BT) test be performed. to assess platelet plug formation
For some injuries such as a needle puncture of a vein, platelet plug formation suffices to seal the site and the _?_ process goes no further hemostatic process
For larger injuries the process continues to secondary hemostasis involving creation of a tougher _?_ clot made of clood cells and fibrin, a filamentous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen Fibrin clot
Secondary Hemostasis: Stage 3 Fibrin Clot formation involves the interaction of a series of _?_ factors designated by Roman numberls in the order of discovery. coagulation factors
Once activated each factor activates the next factor in sequence somewhat like a waterfall or cascade. This coagulation _?_ can be initiated by 2 separate pathways. cascade
the 2 separate pathways. the intrinsic and extrinsic which eventually join to form a common pathway then ends in the formation of a _?_ clot fibrin clot
All 3 pathways require the presence of calcium for proper function. please name the 3 pathways. Intrinsic pathway, Extrinsic pathway, common pathway
Name this pathway: involves the activation of coagulation factors circulating within the bloodstream. Its function is evaluated and monitored by the activated partial thromboplastin test (APTT or PTT) which is useful in monitoring heparin therapy Intrinsic Pathway
Name this pathway: involves the conversion of prothrombin (factor II) to thrombin by the action of prothrombin activator (PTA) generated earlier in the coagulation process as a result of vessel injury. Calcium ions are necessary for this to occur. Common pathway
Name this pathway: is iniated by the release of throboplastin (factorII) from the injured tissue. The prothrombin test (PT) is used to evaluate extrinsic pathway function and monitor coumarin therapy. Extrinsic pathway
Name this pathway:Thrombin splits fibrinogen (factorI) into strands of protein, fibrin. the fibrin creates a netlike structure that traps blood cells &platelets forming emostatic plug(blood clot)which seals openingof injured blood vessel &stops bleeding Common pathway
Secondary Hemostasis:Stage 4 Fibrinolysis pg209Fibrinolysis involves the ultimate removal of dissolution of the blood clot once healing has occurred. This process is possible because activation of the clotting process also releases substances that lead to the conversion of plasminogen.
Secondary Hemostasis:Stage 4 Fibrinolysis pg209What is plasminogen? a substance that is normally present in plasma and thus incorporated in the clot to plasmin.
Plamin is an enzyme that breaks fibrin into small fragments called what? which are then removed by phagocytic cells. fibrin defradation products (fibrin split products)
The coagulation process is kept in check and limited to local sites by the action of natural _?_ circulating in the plasma along with the coagulation factors. inhibitors
The inhibitors bind with coagulation factors that escape the _?_ site and those remaining after _?_ is complete. clotting site / after clotting
Role of the liver in Hemostasis pg 209The liver plays an important role in hemostatic process. What is the liver responsible for in the hemostatic process? It is responsible for the synthesis(manufacture) of coagulation factors,such as fibrogen and prothrombin.
The liver Produces the bile salts necessary for the absorption of vitamin _?_ which is also necessary to the synthesis of the coagulation factors. Vitamen K
In addition, mast cells (tissue basophils) in the liver produce _?_ produce heparin
When a liver is diseased, synthesis of coagulation factors is _?_ and bleeding may result. factors is impaired
Define the following Hemostatic Disorder: a blood clot that forms in a large vein in the leg Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Define the following Hemostatic Disorder: a pathologic form of diffuse coagulation in which coagulation factors are consumed to such and extent that bleeding occurs Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Define the following Hemostatic Disorder: a heredity condition characterized by bleeding due to increased coagulation time. The most common type of hemophilia is due to factor _?_ deficiency VIII deficiency
Define the following Hemostatic Disorder: an abnormal decrease in platelets thrombocytopenia
see box 6-5 pg 210 Examples of Diagnostic test of hemostasis process Name the 7 tests *Bleeding time(BT)*D-dimer*factor assays *fibrin degradation products (FDP) *platelet function assay (PTA) *prothrombin time (PT)*partial thromboplastin time(PTT or APTT)
PG 210 FIG 6-20 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM name it;s function? lymph vessels spread throughout the entire body much like blood vessels. returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream, protects the body by removing microorganisms and impurities, processes lymphocytes and delivers fats absorbed from the small intestine to the blood stream.
Name the structures that make up the lymphatic system is made up of fluid called lymph and lympatic vessels ,ducts and nodes (masses of lymph tissue) through which the lymph flows
Lymph Flow: body cells are bathed in tissue fluid acquired from the bloodstream. Water Oxygen &nutrients continually diffuse through the _?_ walls into the tissue spaces. CAPILLARY WALLS
much of the fluid diffuses back into the capillaries along with waste products of metabolism. Excess tissue fluid filters into lymphatic capillaries where it is called _?_ Lymph
Lymph fluid is similar to plasma but is _?_ % water. 95% water
empty large Lymphatic _?_ join with larger and larger lymphatic vessels until they empty into one of two terminal vessels, either the right _?_ duct or the _?_ duct. These ducts empty then empty into large _?_ in the upper body. capillaries, right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct, large veins,
Lymph moves through the vessels primarily owing to skeletal muscle contraction much like blood moves through the veins. Like veins lymphatic vessels have valves to keep the lymph flowing in what direction? flowing in the right direction
Before reaching the ducts the lymph passes through a series of structures called ? lymph nodes
Lymphoid tissue of which nodes are composes is a special kind of tissue with the ability to remove _?_ and process lymphocytes. remove impurities
Thus lymph nodes are able to trap and destroy _?_ and foreign matter and produce lymphocytes destroy bacteria
Give 4 exampls of lymphiod tissue. *tonsils*thymus*gastrointestinal tract, and spleen
What type of lymph nodes (nodes in the arm pit) are often removed as part of breast cancer surgery? Axillary lymph nodes
True or False.Having Axillary lymph nodes removed can impair lymph node drainage and interfere with the destruction of bacteria and foreign matter. True.
Axillary lymph node removal, is a cause for concern in phlebotomy and the reason why are on the same side as a mastectomy is not suitable for venipuncture. True or False? True.
Inflamed lymph nodes may not be able to filter _?_ from the lymph before it returns to the blood stream. This could lead to _?_ the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the blood Septicemia
see pg 212 for Box 6-6 Examples of lyphatic systems diagnostic tests. bone marrow buiopsy*complete blood count (CBC)* culture and sensitivity (C&S)*lymph node biopsy and mononucleosis (mono) test
Name the lymphatic system disorder: inflammation of the lymph vessels Lymphangitis
Name the lymphatic system disorder: inflammation of lymph nodes lymphadenitis
Name the lymphatic system disorder: disease of the lymph nodes, often associated with node enlargement such as seen in mononucleosis Lymphadenopathy
Name the lymphatic system disorder: splee enlargement splenomegaly
Name the lymphatic system disorder: chronic malignant disorder common in males characterized by lymph node enlargement Hodgkin's disease
Name the lymphatic system disorder:a malignant lymphoid tumor Lymphosarcoma
Name the lymphatic system disorder: the term for any lymphoid tumor, benign or malignant Lymphoma
Which of the following described as an anuclear, biconcave disk? 1. Erythrocyte 2.Granulocyte 3.Leukocyte 4.thrombocyte 1. Erthrocyte
the chamber of the heart that receives blood from the systemic circulation is . 1.left atrium 2. left ventricle 3. right atrium 4. right ventricle 3. Right atrium
the thick muscle layer of the heart is called the 1.Endocardium 2. epicardium 3.myocardium 4.pericardium 3.myocardium
The ECG shows P waves due to ?1.atrial contractions 2. delayed contractions 3.recovery of the electrical charge 4.ventricular contraction 1, Atrial contractions
When taking a BP, the systolic pressure is the pressure reading when 1.artery is compressed and vlood flow is cut off 2.cuff is completely deflated 3.first heart sounds are heard as the cuff is deflated 4.muffled sound is heard as the cuff is deflated 3.first heart sounds are heard as the cuff is deflated
Purpose of the pulmonary system is to 1.carry blood to and from the lungs 2.carry nutrients to the cells 3.deliver blood to the systemic system 4.remove impurities from the blood 1.carry blood to and from the lungs
which of the following blood vessels are listed in the proper order of blood flow?1.aorta,superior vena cava,vein 2.arteriole,venule,capillary 3.capillary,venule,vein 4.Vein, venule, capillary 3.capillary,venule,vein
the internal space of a blood vessel is called what? Lumen
the longest vein and the largest artery in the body in that order are 1.inferior vena cava and brachial 2.pulmonary and femoral 3.cephalic and femoral 4.Great saphenous and aorta 4.Great saphenous and aorta
the preferred vein for venipuncture in the H pattern is the ? Median cubital
The major difference between plasma and serum is that plasma ? contains fibrinogen, serum does not
An individuals blood type (A,B,AB or O) is determined by the presence or absence of which of the following on the RBCS? 1.Antigens 2.antibodies 3.chemicals 4.hormones 1. Antigens
Name the correct sequence of events after blood vessel injury? Vasoconstriction,platelet aggregation, fibrin clot formation
Lymph originates from where? tissue fluid
A heart disorder characterized by fluid build up in the lungs is called congestive heart failure
REview of the flow of blood pg 192. remember reminder cues: OP-C-C-B oxygen poorOR-C-C-B oxygen rich=Arterioles = capillaries = Venules
Created by: Account65