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WVSOM immuno lec 7

WVSOM immunogenetics lec 7 immuno

Things to happen before an infection can occur? infectious organism has to overcome the host defenses
What is the response of an inoculation of an antigen? the host initiates an inflammatory response, and innate defense mechanisms, in the mean time the antigens are being presented to the lymphoid organisms, lymphocytes are being activated, lymphocytes come out and secrete antibody
If there were one gene for each protein that was recognized by the immune system how much of the genome would it take up? almost the entire genome
So b cells the receptors on their surface are what? antibody
The specificity takes place in which region of the antibody? the antigen binding site that is made of the variable light and variable heavy chains of the antibody
Remember what an antibody looks like state how many heavy or light chains as well as any constant or variable regions? two light chains with a constant region and a variable region, two heavy chains with a variable region and at least 3 constant regions
The variable region its self is encoded by how many different gene segments? two or more different gene segments for the light its 2 for the heavy 3 different gene segments
Why is the V segments bigger? because they encode the most part of the amino acids
Lets look at a kappa light chain how is it encoded? the variable part of the light chain about 100 amino acids is encoded by two different gene segments of which the cell has several to chose from, ~40 V segments and ~5 J segments
Two names that you have to remember RAG1 and RAG 2 they stand for recombinase activating gene what do they do? they help the process of recombination
Severe Combined Immuno Diffeciency (SCIDs) where the patients immune system is severely compromised one form is caused by a defect in what? RAG genes where the B cells and T cells are unable to form receptors so you are unable to form an immune system
The entire binding site is composed of what? the variable region of the light chain and the variable region of the heavy chain
Now lets look at the heavy chain, the variable region is encoded by 3 different gene segments what are these segments? V (~40), J (5 or 6), D (~20) segments so again the possibilities are huge
Are the antibody in different order and what cells undergo combinations to form antibody? They are always in this order, only the B cells are going to undergo this combination to form antibody
Which immunoglobulin segment will be encoded first on the heavy chain? the closest to the variable region (IgM) and (IgD)
Are the specificities of the IgM and IgD from the same immunoglobulin encoding regions different? no they have the same specificity
In an acute organism infection which antibody will be most prevalent in the immune response? IgM
If you have a second exposure to an organism what is the most prevalent antibody in the immune response? IgG
How is antibody diversity created? clones with unique receptors, gene segments encode receptor proteins, random combination of segments
How is antibody diversity created? clones with unique receptors,gene segments encode receptor proteins, random combination of segments, differences in joining points of segments, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), light chain plus heavy chain combinations, somatic hypermutations
What is the role of TdT? at the same time expressed in the developing cells adding more and more nucleotides so they encode different proteins in the different segments so now we have an explosion of different receptors
What is the role of Somatic hypermutations? b cells when they proliferate the genes for immunoglobulin receptors undergo hypermutations even if cells have the same gene segments to encode antibody receptors the clones may not have exactly the same receptor because of these mutations that occur
Trace out the life of a B cell? starts in bone marrow, stem cell to lymphoid progenitor to pro-B cell to Pre-B cell to immature B-cell then goes to periphery, Mature B cell which goes to either a plasma cell or memory B cell that can go to plasma cells
Cells are forming receptors all the time those that are self reactive what happens to those? get eliminated
Mature b cells hang out in the secondary lymphoid organs where if they come in contact with antigen what happens? become plasma cells or memory cells
How does binding to the antibody receptor signal the nucleus to begin dividing if it has very little cytoplasmic connection? there are other cells that are in association with the receptor that have a cytoplasmic component, it undergoes conformational changes and phosphorilations happen, this is very important for signal transduction
Remember RAG 1 and RAG 2 these are the recombinase genes that facilitate that segment rearrangement when will they be expressed? they will be expressed early as the cell is rearranging but not in the mature cell
The role of TdT again will be? adding random nucleotides to those gene segments that are being recombined
What is Isotype switching? b cell becomes active proliferates now some of the clones will switch to another type IgM IgA ect
How does the cell undergo isotype switching? The cell will splice out a portion bringing closer to another segment that will encode for a different immunoglobulin IgG for example
People with allergies tend to have more of the T cells that express IL4 and you get more what antibody? IgE antibody
Which has better affinity for antigen, IgM or IgG? IgG
If over time you are still exposed to an antigen what is the response you get with the antibodies? first you get a response with IgM but as the exposure prolongs you get a switch to IgG which gets better and the affinity for the antigen increases as well
What may happen is that you may have a translocation of an oncogene what is this? you have a transfer between chromosomes that usually leads to cancer
Why do you get cancer when you have a translocation between chromosomes? because the normal regulation has been removed from that segment that has been transferred and could cause an anomaly such as cancer
What is Burkitt’s lymphoma? a cancer causing a swollen tummer in the jaw, caused by a chromosomal anomaly where you have a translocation between chromosome 8 and 14 that can be caused by a strain of the herpes virus
When does a baby start to make its own antibody? A baby starts to produce its own antibody about 30 to 32 antibody, mostly IgM some IgA
What is the make up of a babies immune system when born? Most of the IgG in the circulation of the baby comes from the mother
When is the baby is making a lot of IgM and IgG some IgA is coming into play but not much? By one year of age
Which antibody is allowed to cross the placenta into fetal circulation? IgG
Created by: hagerman