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Chapter 7

Muscles

QuestionAnswer
Muscle Overview Muscles support and maintain body posture through a low level of a contraction, Skeletal muscles produce a substantial amount of heat when they contract, More than 600 muscles in the body
Skeletal Attaches to the bones of the skeleton, Voluntary, Striated in appearance, Operates under conscious control, Many work in pairs
Smooth(Visceral Muscle) Involuntary, Not striated, Not under conscious control, In walls of hollow organs and tubes, Contraction controlled by hormones and autonomic nervous system
Cardiac Specialized muscle forming the wall of the heart, involuntary, Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, Striated in appearance
Tendon Attaches muscles to bones
Fascia Sheets of fibrous connective tissue around muscle
Point of Origin Muscle attachment to less movable part of skeleton
Point of insertion Muscle attachment to movable part of skeleton
Buccinator Located in fleshy part of cheek; assists in actions such as whistling and smiling
Temporal Located above and near the ear; assisting in chewing
Masseter Located at the angle of the jaw; Raises the mandible and closes the jaw
Sternomastoid (Sternocleidomastoid) Extends from the sternum upward along the side of the neck to the mastoid process; Assists with actions such as bending your neck and turning your head side to side
Trapezius Triangular-shaped muscle, extends across the back of the shoulder, Covers back of neck, Inserts on clavicle and scapula, assists with "shrugging" of shoulders
Latissimus Dorsi Originates from vertebrae of the Lower back, Crosses lower half of the thoracic region, Passes through the humerus and scapula, Inserts on anterior surface of humerus, Forms the posterior border of the axillae, Allows moving of arms (swinging motion)
Deltoid Covers the shoulder joint, Originates form the clavicle and scapula, Inserts on the lateral side of the humerus, Allows abduction of the arm, may be site of IM injections
Triceps Brachii Muscle has three heads, originates from scapula and humerus, Inserts onto olecranon process of the ulna at the elbow
Pectoralis Major Large, fan shaped muscle, Crosses the upper part of the front crest, Originates from the sternum, Crosses over the humerus, allows adduction of the arm
Biceps Brachii Muscle has two heads, originates from the scapula, inserts on the radius, allows flexing of the lower arm
Quadriceps Femoris Forms anterior part of the thigh, Helps in extension of the thigh, Group of four muscles
Hamstring Muscles Located in the posterior part of the thigh, can be felt behind the knee, Assists in the flexion of the leg on the thigh and extension of the thigh, Group of three muscles
Gluteus Maximus Forms most of the fleshy part of the buttock, originates from the ilium and inserts in the femur, Extends the thigh
Gluteus Medius Located above the upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus muscle; site of IM injection, Originates from the posterior part of ilium, Inserts in the greater trochanter of the femur
Gastrocnemius Main muscle of the calf, attaches to the heel bone by way of the achilles tendon, used to plantar flex foot and flex toes
Tibialis anterior Positioned on the front of the leg, used to dorsiflex foot and turn foot inward
Created by: Evyloveslife