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Chapter 6

Pathological Conditions/Diagnostic techniques, Treatments, Procedures

Osteomalacia Abnormal softening of the bones due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorous in the blood
Osteomyelitis A local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow
Osteoporosis Porous bones, bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density, Greatest susceptibility to fractures
Osteochondroma Most common benign bone tumor, Most frequently involves the Femur and Tibia
Paget's Disease Nonmetabolic disease of the bone, also known as Osteitis Deformans, excessive bone destruction and disorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts. Bone is weak and prone to fractures
Spinal Stenosis Narrowing of the vertebral canal, Congenital or due to spinal degeneration
Talipes Equinovarus Clubfoot, Foot fixed in plantar flexion deviating medially, with heel in elevated position
Kyphosis Outward curvature = humpback or hunchback
Lordosis Inward curvature = swayback
Scoliosis Lateral (sideward) curvature, Curvature may be to left or right
Closed Fracture Break in the bone but no open wound in skin -simple fracture
Open Fracture Break in bone, as well as an open wound in skin -Compound fracture
Complete facture Break extends through the entire thickness of bone
Incomplete Fracture One side of bone is broken and one side of bone is bent considerably but not broken -greenstick fracture
Colles' fracture Break occurs at lower end of the radius, within 1 inch of connecting with wrist bones
Hairline Fracture Minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment (stress fracture)
Compression fracture Caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other
Impacted fracture Direct force causes bone to break, Forces broken end of smaller bone into broken end larger bone
Comminuted Fracture Splintered
Pathological Fracture Bone is weakened by a preexisting disease, Break is in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break
Treatment of fractures Closed reduction, open reduction
Bone scan Intravenous injection of a radioscope, which is absorbed by bone tissue, followed by scanning of the skeleton approx. 3hrs later to dtect areas where the bone absorbs the isoscope
Bone marrow aspiration Removal of a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle, specimen is examined under a microscope, sterile technique
Noninvasive procedures for evaluating bone density -Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), most commonly used procedure -Dual photon absorptiometry Quantative computed tomography(QCT) not frequently used
Occult Fracture A fracture that cannot be detected on and Xray until a few weeks after the injury occurs.
Ossification The conversion of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage into bone or a boney substance
Created by: Evyloveslife



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