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Chapter 6

Skeletal System

Human Skeleton Consists of 206 bones
Diaphysis Main shaft like portion of a long bone, compact bone
Epiphysis Located at each end of a long bone
Epiphyseal line Layer of cartilage, separates diaphysis from epiphysis, allows bone to grow lengthwise
Periosteum Fibrous membrane, covers the surface of the long bone
Articular cartilage Covers joint surfaces
Medullary (marrow) cavity Contains yellow marrow
Spongy bone Also called cancellous bone, needlelike trabeculae give added strangth to bone
Red Bone Marrow Site for blood cell production
Yellow Marrow Stores fat, Not an active site for blood cell formation in the adult
Bone formation Begins at birth, Cartilage is gradually replaced by bone tissue as skeleton develops
Osteoblasts Actively produce bone tissue
Osteoclasts Digest bone tissue
Osteocytes Mature bone cells, Maintain bone without producing new bone tissue
Ossification Process of bone formation, Conversion of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage into bone or bony substance
Sinus Opening or hollow space in bone
Fossa Hollow or shallow concave depression in bone
Concave areas or openings in a bone Helps form joints, serve as points of attachment for muscle
Sulcus Groove or depression in a bone (ex:fissure)
Foramen Hole within a bone for blood vessels or nerves to pass through (ex. foramen magnum of the skull)
Cranium=Bony skull Envelops brain, Composed of eight bones (immovable bones), Borders meet to form immovable joints (immovable joints = sutures)
Facial bones Two bones provide distinctive shape to face -maxillae -mandible All facial bones connected by immovable joints (sutures) one exception (mandible)
Maxillae upper jaw bones
Mandible lower jaw bones
Vertebral bones Form long axis of the body, referred to as "spinal column" or "backbone" -24 vertebrae+sacrum+coccyx -Offer protection to spinal cord
Cervical Vertabrae Vertebrae of the neck (cervic/o=neck), Identified as C1-C7 Only C1 and C2 have names
C1 Known as atlas
C2 Known as axis
Thoracic Vertebrae Vertebrae of the chest (thorac/o=chest) Identified as T1-T12
Lumbar Vertebrae Vertebrae of the lower back (lumb/o=lower back) Identified as L1-L5
Sacrum Singular, triangular shaped bone, resulted from fusion of five individual coccygeal bones in the child
Coccyx "Tailbone", Resulted from fusion of four individual coccygeal bones in the child
True ribs(pairs 1-7) Attach to sternum in front and vertebrae in back
False ribs(pairs- 8-10) Attach to vertebrae in back but attach to cartilage of 7th rib in front - not the sternum
Floating ribs(pairs 11-12) Attach to vertebrae in back, Completely free of attachment in front
Sternum Breastbone 3 parts: Manubrium. Body, Xiphoid process
Clavicle Collarbone, connects laterally to scapula and anteriorly to sternum
Scapula Shoulder blade, acromion connects with clavicle (forms shoulder)
Humerus Lone bone in upper arm
Radius Lower arm bone, on thumb side of wrist
Ulna Lower arm bone, on the little finger side of wrist
Carpals bones of wrist
Metacarpals Bones of hand
Phalanges Bones of the finger, each finger has 3 phalangeal bones, the thumb has only 2
Ilium Largest of the three hip bones, Upper flared portion
Iliac crest Upper curved edge of ilium, flat bone, good source for red bone marrow
Ischium Lowest part of hip bones, Strongest of pelvic bones
Symphysis pubis Cartilaginous joint at connection of the two pubic bones
Acetabulum Formed by segments of Ilium, Ischium, and pubis -Connecting point for the femur and the hip
Femur Thigh bone, Heaviest bone in the body
Patella Kneecap
Ankle bones Tarsals
Calcaneus heel bone
Foot bones Metatarsals
Tibia Shin bone, Larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones
Fibula More slender of the two lower leg bones
Created by: Evyloveslife