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Chapter 6

The Skeletal System - vocabulary

TermDefinition
bone head A rounded, knoblike end of a long bone, sperated from the shaft of the bone by a narrow portion (the neck of the bone)
neck A constricted or narrow section section that connects with the head, as in the neck connecting to the head or the neck of the femur
tuberosity (too-ber-oss-ih-tee) An elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone-usually for attachment of muscles or tendons
trochanter (tro-KAN-ter) Large bony process located below the neck of the femur, for attachment of muscles
condyle A knucklelike projection at the end of the bone: usually fits into a fossa of another bone to form a joint
crest A distinct border or ridge: an upper elevated edge, as in the upper part of the hip bone (the iliac crest): generally a site for muscle attachment
spine A sharp projection from the surface of a bone, similar to a crest: for example, the spine of the scapula (the shoulder blade) used for muscle attachment. Body depressions - concave (indented) areas, or openings, in bone.
sulcus a groove or depression in a bone: a fissure
sinus An opening or hollow space in a bone, as in the paranasal sinuses or the frontal sinus
fissure Same as Sulcus
fossa A hoolow or shallow concave depression in a bone
foramen A hole within a bone that allows
Frontal bone Forms the forehead (front of skull)
Parietal bones They form most of the top and the upper sides of the cranium
Occipital bone Forms the back of the head and the base of the skull(the back portion of the flor of the cranial cavity) The occipital bone contains the foramen magnum (large opening at its base)
Temporal bones Form lower sides and part of the base of the skull(cranium) Contain the middle and inner ear structures and mastoid structures.
Sphenoid bone bat shaped bone located at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bones. the sphenoid bones form part of the base of the eye orbits
Ethmoid Lies just behind the nasal bone, in front of the sphenoid bone. forms at the front of the base of the skull, part of the eye orbits and the nasal cavity. Also contains the ethmoid sinuses
Mandibular bone (mandible) The lower jaw bone. The largest strongest bone of the face and only movable bone of the skull. Contains sockets for teeth along the upper margin
Tempromandibular joint (TMJ) The mandibular bone meets the temporal bone to become a movable joint.
Maxillary bones two maxillary bones (maxillae) are the bones of the upper jaw. They are fused in the midline by a suture.also form the hard plate(front part of the roof of the mouth) contains the maxillary sinuses and the sockets for the teeth along the lower margin
Zygomatic bones two zygomatic bones-one on each side of the face- form the high part of the cheek and the outer border of the eye orbits.
Nasal bones two slender nasal bones give shape to the nose by forming the upper part of the bridge. The lower part of the nose is formed by the septal cartilage. Meet at the midline of the face. They also join the frontal bone,ethmoid bone and maxillae.
Lacrimal bones Two small lacrimal bones are paper thin and shaped somewhat like a fingernail. located at the inner corner of the eye,forming the sidewall of the nasal cavity and the middle of the eye orbit.
Vomer Thin, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum. Its joins with the sphenoid, palatine, ethmoid, and maxillary bones
Palatine bones Two bones shaped like the letter L, they have vertical and horizontal portion.Vertical forms the sidewall of the back ofthe nasal cavity. The horizontal portion joins in the midline to form the back (posterior)part of the roof of the mouth or hard plate.
Nasal conchae Two inferior bones help complete the nasal cavity by forming the side and lower wall. These bones with the maxilla, lacrimal, ethmoid, and palatine bones.
Hyoid bone Located just above the larynx and below the mandible. Serves as points of attachment for muscles of the tongue and throat.
cervical vertabrae The first segment of the vertebral column. C1-C7
thoracic vertebrae The second segment of the vertebral column T1-T12
lumbar vertebrae The third segment of the vertebral column L1-L5
sacrum The fourth segment of the vertebral column. Triangle shaped bone the resulted from the fusion of the 5 individual sacral bones of the child
coccyx The fifth segment of the vertebral column "tailbone"
humerus The upper arm bone
Radius one of the two lower arm bones, it is on the lateral, or thumb, side of the arm
ulna the second of the two lower arm bones. It is on the medial, or little finger, side of the arm.
carpals The bones of the wrist. Each wrist has eight carpal bones (two rows of four bones each)
metacarpals They form the bones of the hand. The metacarpals join with the carpals at their upper (proximal) end, and with the phalanges(fingers) at their lower (distal) end.
phalanges The bones of the fingers. Each finger has 3 phalangeal bones. The thumb has two.
femur Thigh bone. Longest, heaviest and strongest bone in the body
patella The knee bone or kneecap. The largest sesamoid bone in the body.
tibia Larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones. Also called the shin bone. Located on the great toe side of the lower leg.
fibula The more slender of the two lower leg bones and is lateral to the tibia.
Created by: Evyloveslife
 

 



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