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ALH Chapter 4

Body Structures

Chromatin makes up chromosomes
Diaphragm divides thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
Cells have in common membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus
cytology study of cells
Humans have _______ genes 31,000
histology study of tissues
anatomical position body posture used to locate anatomical parts or divisions
midsagittal median
coronal frontal
transverse horizontal
dorsal cranial and spinal cavities
ventral thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Abduction away from the body
Adduction towards the body
Medial middle
Lateral side
superior toward the head
inferior away from the head
proximal center. trunk of body
distal limbs
anterior front
posterior back
parietal outside of body
visceral inside of body
prone lying face down
supine lying face up
inversion turning inward
eversion turning outward
plamar palm of hand
plantar sole of foot
supericial toward surface of body
deep away from surface of body
cervical spine neck
thoracic spine chest
lumbar spine loin
sacral spine lower back
coccyx spine tailbone
cyto cell
histo tissue
karyo nucleus
nucleo nucleus
antero anterior, front
caudo tail
cephalo head
disto far, farthest
dorso back of body
infero lower, below
latero side
medio middle
postero back, behind
proximo near, nearest
ventro belly
abdomino abdomen
cervico neck of
cranio cranium, skull
gastro stomach
ilio ilium
inguino groin
lumbo loins, lower back
pelvi pelvis
pelvo pelvis
spino spine
thoraco chest
umbilico umbilicus, navel
albino white
leuko white
chloro green
chromo color
cirrho yellow
jaundo yellow
xantho yellow
cyano blue
erythro red
melano black
polio grey
acro extremity
etio cause
idio unknown, peculiar
morpho form, shape
patho disease
radio radiation
somato body
sono sound
tomo to cut
viscero internal organs
xero dry
-genesis form
-gnosis knowing
-gram record
-graph instrument for recording
-logist specialist in the study of
-logy study of
-meter instrument for measuring
-pathy disease
ab from, away
ad toward
hetero different
homeo same
infra below
peri around
super upper
trans across
ultra excess
symptoms are only experienced by the patient
etiology study of the cause of origin of a disease or disorder
idiopathic disease with unknown cause
sequela consequence of a previous disease or injury
adhesion abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
edema abnormal accumulation of fluid within tissues spaces
febrile pertaining to a fever
gangrene death and decay of soft tissue
hernia protrusion of any organ through the structure that normally contains it
inflammation body defense marked by redness, swelling, heat and pain
mycosis any fungal infection in or on the body
perforation hole that completely penetrates a structure
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum which surrounds the body cavity
rupture sudden breaking or bursting of a structure or organ
sepsis results from microorganisms in bloodstream.
suppuration producing or associated with the generation of pus
infusion therapy delivery of fluid directly into the bloodstream
ablation removal of a part, pathway or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency
anastomosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowl segments to allow flow from one to the other
cauterize destruction of tissue by electricity, freezing, heat or corrosive chemicals
curettage scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument (curette)
incision and drainage incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
laser surgery use of high intensity laser beam to remove tissues, stop bleeding or for cosmetic purposes
resection removal of part or all of a structure, organ or tissue
revision surgical procedure to replace or compensate for a previously implanted device or correct an undesirable result from a previous surgery
assessment techniques sequence of procedures to evaluate health status of a patient
inspection general observation of patient
palpation gentle application of the hands to a specific structure or body area to determine specifics
percussion tapping a structure to assess consistency and presence or absence of fluids within the underlying structure
auscultation listening to the heart, bowl, and lungs with or without a stethoscope
endoscopy visual examination of a body cavity or canal using endoscope
CBC complete blood count
organ disease panals series of blood tests to evaluate a specific organ or disease
Computed tomography (CT) x-ray emitter rotates around the area to be scanned
fluoroscopy x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays internal structures in continuous motion
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radio waves and magnetic field to produce highly detailed, multiplanar, cross-sectional views of soft tissues
nuclear scan radioactive material (tracer) introduced to the body and a specialized gamma camera is used to produce images of organs and structures
positron emission tomography (PET) records positrons emitted from a radiopharmaceutical to produce a cross- sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine presence of a disease
radiography x-rays are passed through the body and captured on film to generate an image
single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) integrates a CT and a tracer injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs
ultrasonography sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
biopsy (bx) removal of a tissue sample for microscopic examination
excisional biopsy in which the entire lesion is removed
incisional biopsy in which only a small sample of lesion is removed
Created by: Gianna B