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Spinal Anat

spinal and neuroanatomy for chiropractic board exams

Posterior border of the intervertebral foramen? Zygopophyseal Joint
Superior border or the Intervertebral foramen? Pedicle of the vertebra above
Anterior border of the intervertebral foramen? Vertebral body of above and below vertebra's and the intervertebral disc between the two.
Inferior border of the intervertebral foramen? Pedicle of the vertebra below
Formed by superior articular facet of vertebra below and the inferior articular facet of the vertebra above. Lined by the ligamentum flavum anteriorly? zygapophyseal joint
Vertebral foramina are circular and the smallest in which region? thoracic
Shape of vertebral foramen in cervical region largest and trefoil shaped
Intermediate sized and trefoil shaped lumbar
trefoil and slightly smaller than lumbar canal sacral canal
Inferior articular process that are oval atlas
What does the atlas articulate with superiorly? occiput
What is the shape of the superior articular processes of the atlas? irregular shaped and concave to accommodate the convex occiput
What is the joint between the occiput and atlas classified as? condyloid (ellipsiod), synovial (diarthrodial)
Describe the transverse processes of the atlas. large and have a single lateral process.
Name the structures that pass through the foramen magnum. spinal cord, meninges, spinal components of CN XI, vertebral arteries
What Cranial Nerve exits the skull through the hypoglossal canals? CN XII
First fontanel to close at 2 months of age. posterior or occipital fontanel
What is the anatomical structure name for the posterior/occipital fontanel? Lambda
What are the atypical vertebrae of the cervical region? C1, C2, and C7
What are the atypical vertebrae of the thoracic region? T1, T9, T10, T11, T12
What are the atypical vertebrae of the lumbar region? L5
Primary ossification centers of a typical vertebrae centrum and 2 halves of the neural arch
How many ossification centers are there in a typical vertbrae? 5 ossification centers that develop during puberty and 3 initial ossification centers.
When is fusion of the vertebral arch complete in the lumbar vertebrae? age 6
Anterior curve in a normal adult cervical spine is classified as... Secondary curve
First intervertebral foramen is b/w what vertebrae? Axis and 3rd cervical vertebrae
Which muscles attach to the mastoid process of the temporal bone? SCM, Longissimus capitis, digastricus, and splenius capitis
Semispinalis capitis muscles attaches to... transverse process of C4-T6 vertebrae and the superior nuchal line of occipital bone.
Iliocostalis lumborum muscle attaches to... ilium and the inferior 6 ribs
Longissimus muscles for the middle column of erector spinae group and extend from... ilium to the skull
The erector spinae muscles perform what action? extend the spine, laterally flex the spine and rotate the spine.
The iliocostalis thoracic muscle attaches from... inferior 6 ribs to the superior 6 ribs
Muscles that attach to the atlas? Levator scapulae, rectus capitis posterior minor and obliquus capitis superior
Rectus capitis posterior major attaches from... Spinous process of axis to inferior nuchal line of occipital bone.
Multifidus muscles attach from... TP of one vertebra to the SP of the 2-4 superior vertebrae.
Short rotator muscles in the lumbar region attach... Transverse muscles of one vertebrae and insert on the SP of vertebrae directly superior to its origin.
Long cervical rotator muscles attach from... TP of one vertebrae to SP of the 2nd vertebrae superior to it's origin.
What is a superficial muscle that covers the inferior portion of the back? Latissimus Dorsi
Latissimus dorsi's origin? Spinous process of T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, ribs 10-12
Latissimus dorsi's insertion? Floor of the intertubercular groove of humerus
Action of the latissimus dorsi? extention, adduction, and medial rotation shoulder joint.
Most lateral portion of the erector spinae muscle group? iliocostalis
erector spinae muscles named lateral to medial? Iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
Deep transversospinalis group? Semispinalis, multifidus, and rotatores
superior attachment of the semispinalis capitis muscle? between superior and inferior nuchal lines of the occiput.
Three parts of the Semispinalis Muscle? Semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and semispinalis thoracis.
What are the parts of the semispinalis muscles named for? Their superior attachment
What is the transversospinalis muscle that crosses only 1 vertebral joint? rotatores
What is the origin and insertion of the Rotatores? TP of one vertebrae and Inserts into spinous process of vertebrae above
Splenius capitis is what kind of muscle? deep back muscle
All deep back muscles are innervated by... dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
latissimus dorsi innervated by... thoracodorsal
Rhomboid major innervated by... dorsal scapular
Serratus posterior superior innervated by... ventral rami of upper thoracic nerves
spinalis muscles originate from... SP's
Spinalis muscles insert on... SP's
What is the name of the 5th layer of back muscles? transversospinalis
What are two muscles in the 5th (transversospinalis) layer of back muscles? Semispinalis and multifidus
Located between TP's of successive vertebrae? Intertransversarii muscles
Origin of the multifidus muscle? partially from mammillary processes of lumbar vertebrae
Origin of the longissimus thoracis... partially from accessory processes of lumbar vertebrae
spinal part of the accessory nerve innervates... Trapezius and SCM
Thoracodorsal nerve innervates... latissimus dorsi
Dorsal scapular nerve innervates... levator scapulae and rhomboid major & minor
Dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves innervate... deep back muscles
muscle of extension of the head spinalis cervicis
anterior aspect of cervical vertebrae and produce flexion of the head... longus capitis, longus colli, SCM
Multifidus lumborum inserts on... SP's of vertebrae 2-4 segments above
Multifidus lumborum originates from... MP's of lumbar vertebrae
Iliocostalis lumborum inserts on... sacrotuberous ligament and posteromedial iliac crest
deepest muscle fasciculi located in the groove between the spinous and transverse processes. rotatores
6th layer of back muscles multifidus, semispinalis, and rotatores
begins on SP of C2 and ends on occiput. obliquus capitis superior
begins on SP of axis and ends on TP of atlas oblquus capitis inferior
what is the most highly developed muscle in humans. multifidus lumborum
3rd layer of back muscles serratus posterior superior and inferior
accessory muscle of respiration that helps with forced inspiration? serratus posterior superior
accessory muscle of respiration that helps with forced expiration? serratus posterior inferior
latissimus dorsi actions... adducts, internally rotates and extends the upper extremity by acting on the humerus
Retracts the scapula rhomboid major
laterally flexes thoracic region to same side iliocostalis thoracic
What covers the articular surfaces of each superior and inferior articular process of the vertebrae? Hyaline Cartilage
What type of cartilage is located in the trachea? Annular Cartilage
Where is the nucleus pulposus the thickest? lumbar region
What movement of the spine creates a separation of the zygapophyseal joints? flexion
What is the transverse portion of the cruciform ligament? transverse ligament of the atlas
Where does the transverse ligament of the atlas attach? from lateral mass to lateral mass of the atlas
What type of joint does the transverse ligament of the atlas form with the odontoid process? diarthrodial (synovial) trochoid joint
What movement does the transverse ligament of the atlas allow? atlas to pivot on the axis
What does the transverse ligament of the atlas prevent? the atlas from gliding forward during flexion
Created by: 827753675