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chapter 6

what is contractility? ability of skeletal muscle to shorten the force
what is excitability? capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
what is extensibility? ability to be stretched
what is elasticity? ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
what helps heat essential for maintenance of normal body temps. ? muscles
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue called the ? epimysium
what is another tissue located outside the epimysium? fascia
composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle perimysium
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue called the endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with what? myofibrils
1 major kinds of protein fibers actin myofilaments
another major protein fiber myosin myofilaments
highly ordered units are called sacromeres
what is another name for a zline disc
charge difference across the membrane is called resting membrane potential
brief reversal back of the charge is called action potential
what are nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor meurons
axons enter the muscle branch. each branch connects and forms a neuromuscular junction
what is near the center of the cell synapse
single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers are called motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal is the what? presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and muscle cell is the synaptic cleft
muscle fiber is postsynaptic terminal
each presynatpic terminal contains synaptic terminal
secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin during contraction is called sliding filament mechanism
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus muscle twitch
muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called threshold
the phenomenon is called the all-or-none response
beginning of a contraction is the lag phase
time of contraction is the contraction phase
time during which the muscle relaxes is the relaxation phase
tetany where muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment increase in number of motor units being activated
atp stands for adenosine triphosphate
atp is needed for energy for muscle contraction
atp is produced in the mitochondria
atp is short-lived and unstable
adp stands for adenosine diphosphate
adp is more stable than atp. T or F T
high energy molecule creatine phosphate
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respirtation with oxygen
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during contraction
1 type of muscle contraction isometric
define isometric length of muscle does NOT change (equal distance)
another type of muscle contraciton isotonic
define isotonic amount of tension produced by muscles to preform metabolism
define muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by the body for long periods of time
fast twitch (chicken) white chicken meat
slow twitch (chicken) dark chicken meat
origin (head) most stationary end of the muscle
insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly located between the origin and insertion
define synergists muscles that work together accomplish specific movements
define antagonists muscles that work opposition to one another
prime mover major role in accomplishing the movement
muscles are named often according to location and size. T or F T
occipitofrontalis raise the eyebrows
orbicularios oculi closes the eye lid causes crow feet
orbicularis oris puckers lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
zygomaticus smiling muscles
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
chewing = mastication
4 mastication muscles 2 ptreygoids, temporalis, masseter
intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape
extrinsic tongue muscles move the tongue
sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of back
thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
most involved in breathing (2) external intercostals and internal inter costals
diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing
dome shape muscle aids in breathing
Created by: tabbykay23