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Chapter 6- Muscles

ability to shorten with force contractility
capacity to respond to a stimulus excitability
ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to original length elasticity
muscles produce what? heat
connective tissue sheath called... epimysium
connective tissue located outside epimysium Fascia
surrounded by loose connective tissue called... perimysium
single muscle cells fibers
cytoplasm each fiber filled with myofibrils
myofibrils consist of 2 protein fibers actin myofilaments & myosin myofilaments
highly ordered units called sacromeres
sacromere extends from one z line to another z line
Each side of the z line light area called... an I band
I band consists of- actin
The A band extends the length of the myosin
charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
brief reversal back of charge is called... action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called... motor unit
secrete a neurotransmitter called... acetylocholine
contraction of entire muscle muscle twitch
point at which muscle fiber ill contract maximally threshold
time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
contraction phase time of the contraction
relaxation phase time during which muscle relaxes
tetany where muscle remains contacted without relaxing
increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
atp adenosine triphosphate
atp needed for energy for muscle contraction
produced in the mitochondria atp
short-lived, unstable atp
without oxygen anaerobic respirtation
with oxygen aerobic respiration
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose to replenish oxygen debt
faster than it can be produced muscle fatigue
muscle contractions two types
isometric equal distance
equal tension isotonic
keeps head and back straight muscle tone
contract quickly fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
white meat is an example of- fast-twitch fibers
dark meat is an example of- slow-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and resist fatigue slow-twitch fibers
points of attachment of each muscle origin and insertion
another name for origin head
most stationary end of the muscle origin
undergoes greatest movement insertion
end of the muscle insertion
belly between the origin and insertion
t/f some multiples have multiple origins true
muscles that work together synergists
muscles that work in opposition antagonists
among a group of synergists prime mover
plays major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
muscles have names that are_____________ descriptive
some are named according to_____________ shape, size, origin insertion, orientation of fibers, and function
raise the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes the eyelids orbicularis oculi
buccinator flattens the cheeks
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
oribicularis oris and buccinator are ___________ muscles kissing muscles
smiling muscles zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
chewing mastication
________ pair of mastication muscles 4
2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
tongue muscles two types
instrinsic tongue muscles change the shape of the tongue
extrinsic tongue muscles move the tongue
neck muscle sternocleidomastoid
sheetlike muscle that covers the anterolateral neck platysma
group of muscles on each side of the back erector spinae
responsible for keeping the back straight and erect erector spinae
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
most involved in breathing external intercostals and internal instercostals
external intercostals elevate ribs during inspiration
internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
Created by: Hannah Watson



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