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Chapter 6: Muscles

ability of a skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
capacity of a skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
ability to be stretched extensibility
connective tissue sheath; surrounds skeletal muscle epimysium
connective tissue outside the epimysium; surrounds and separates muscles fascia
numerous bundles that make up a muscle muscle fasiculi
surrounds fasiculi perimysium
muscle cells are also called? muscle fibers
connective tissue sheath; surrounds fibers endomysium
threadlike structure; extends from one end of a fiber to the other myofibrils
thin myofilaments actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments myosin myofilaments
joined end to end to form myofibril; extend from one Z line to another sarcomeres
charge difference across a membrane resting membrane potential
brief reversal back of a charge action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
neuromuscular junction synapse
single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
synaptic vesicles secrete what? acetylcholine
enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine acetylcholinesterase
sliding filament mechanism the H and I bands shorten, but the A bands don't change in length
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
point where a muscle fiber will contract maximally threshold
time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
when the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
What can ATP degenerate to? ADP
high-energy molecule that can be held by muscle cells creatine phosphate
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose; can be caused by increased respiration oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells muscle fatigue
equal distance; length of muscle does not change, amount of tension increases; ex-holding a ball isometric
equal tension, amount of tension remains the same, length of muscle does change; ex-throwing a ball isotonic
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract and fatigue quicly; ex-white meat of a chicken's breast fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and more resistant to fatigue; ex-dark meat of a duck's breast or the legs of a chicken slow-twitch fibers
most stationary end of a muscle origin
end of muscle undergoing greatest movement insertion
between origin and insertion the belly
muscle that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
one muscle that plays the major roll in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes the eyelids; causes "crow's feet" orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
chewing mastication
types of tongue muscles intrinsic and extrinsic
change shape of the tongue intrinsic
move the tongue extrensic
lateral neck muscle and prime mover sternocleidomastoid
group of muscles on each side of the back; keep back straight and the body erect erector spinae
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
tendinous area of abdominal wall; consists of white connective tissue linea alba
found on each side of the linea alba rectus abdominis muscle
cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations; make abdominal wall of well-muscled people to appear segmented tendinous inscriptions
how can muscles be named? location, size, shape, orientation of fibers, origin, insertion, function, etc
rotates scapula trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
the arm is attached to the thorax by? the pectoralis major and latissimuss dorsi muscles
adducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm latissimus dorsi
attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle; major abductor of the upper limb deltoid
extends the forearm triceps brachii
flexes the forearm; also occupies the anterior compartment of the arm biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm brachoiradislis
flexes the wrist flexor carpi
extends the wrist extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorum
extends the fingers extensor digitorum
muscles located within the hand intrinsic hand muscles
muscles located between the metacarpals interossi muscles
the buttocks gluteus maximus
extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles quadriceps femoris
flexes the thigh "tailors muscle" sartorius
posterior thigh muscles; flexes leg and extends thigh hamstring muscles
form the calf muscle gastrocnemius and soleus
flex the foot and toes calcaneal tendon (achilles tendon)
lateral muscles of the leg peroneus muscles
muscles within the foot; flex, extend, abduct, and adduct the toes intrinsic foot muscles
Created by: allipw98



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