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Chapter 6 Muscles

Excitability muscle to respond to a stimulus
Extensibility ability to be stretched
Elasticity ability to recoil to their original shape
Contractility muscle to shorten with force
Epimysium skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue
Fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium
Endomysium each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
Myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
Actin Myofilaments thin myofilaments
Myosin Myofilaments thick myofilaments
Sarcomeres joined end to end to form the myofibril
A Band extends the length of the myosin
Resting Membrane Potential the charge difference across the membrane
Action Potential the brief reversal back of the charge
Motor Neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to the skeletal muscle fibers
Neuromusclular Junction Forms each branch that connects to the muscle
Synapse near the center of the cell
Motor Unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers
Presynaptic Terminal the enlarged nerve terminal
Synaptic Cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
Postsynaptic Terminal the muscle fiber
Synaptic Vesicles presynaptic terminal contains
Acetylcholine secretes a neurootransmitter
Sliding Filament Mechanism the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contgraction
Thresold A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level
All-or-None Response A phenomenon
Lag Phase The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and beginning of a contraction
Contraction Phase the time of contraction
Relaxation Phase The time during which the muscle relaxes
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
Recruitment The increase in number of motor units being activated
Creatine Phosphate high-energy molecule
Anaerobic Respiration without oxygen
Aerobic Respiration with oxygen
Oxygen Debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
Muscle Fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced
Isometric equal distance
Isotonic equal tension
Muscle Tone muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
Fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
Slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
Origin the most stationary end of the muscle
Insertion is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
Belly the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
Synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
Antagonists Muscles that work in opposition to one another
Prime Mover one muscle playing the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes "crow feet" wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye
Orbicularis oris puckers the lips
Buccinator flattens the cheek
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Levator labii superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
Mastication chewing
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscle move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover
Erector spinaae group of muscles on each side of the back
Thoracic Muscles muscles that move the thorax
External intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
Diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing
Abdominal Wall Muscles the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall flex and rotate th verbal column
Linea Alba tendinous area of the abdominal wall
Rectus Abdominis on each side of the linea alba
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
Triceps Brachii extends the forearm
Biceps Brachii flexes forearm
Flexor Carpi flexes the wrist
Extensor Carpi extends the wrist
Flexor Digitorum flexes the fingers
Extensor Digitorum extends the fingers
Intrinsic Hand Muscles 19 Hand Muscles
Created by: bayhar
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