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Integumentary system


Acid mantle Very fine, slightly acidic film on the surface of the skin acting as a barrier to bacteria, viruses and other potential contaminants that might penetrate the skin. It is secreted by sebaceous glands.
Adipose tissue The loose connective tissue which the hypodermis is primarily made up of.
Apocrine sweat glands Sweat glands located in axillary and genital regions. Produce thicker milky secretion (sweat + lipid and protein), different from eccrine perspiration. Odorless, but breakdown of secretion by bacteria produces odor. Not thermoregulatory.
Arrector pili Involuntary muscle attached to the hair shaft.
Avascular No blood supply of its own.
Basal Cell Type of stem cell found in the stratum basale and in the hair matrix that continually undergoes cell division, producing the keratinocytes of the epidermis.
Calcitriol Liver creates intermediate product then converted to _______ by kidneys
Capillary loops Contained in many *dermal papillae* to furnish *nutrients* to the epidermis.
Carotene Found in orange-yellow vegetables (e.g. carrots) & accumulates in epidermis and hypodermis
Collagen Gives strength to skin. Helps attract and bind water, which assists in maintaining hydration.
Cornified or horny cells Cells completley filled with keratin. These cells make up the stratum corneum.
Cyanosis Skin appears blue
Demosome Structure that forms an impermeable junction between cells.
Dense (fibrous) connective tissue. Skin is composed of two types of tissue; stratified squamous epithelium and ___ ( ___ ) ___ ___.
Dermal papillae Projections upward that help bind epidermis and dermis.
Dermis Layer of skin between the epidermis and hypodermis, composed mainly of connective tissue and containing blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, and other structures.
Eccrine sweat glands Most numerous, important, and widespread sweat glands. Produce perspiration - 99% water (hypotonic) with some salt, ammonia, uric acid, etc. Thermoregulatory.
Elastin Fibers Fibers made of the protein elastin that increase the elasticity of the dermis.
Eleiden Clear protein bound lipid found in the stratum lucidum that is derived from keratohyalin and helps to prevent water loss. An intermediate form of keratin.
Epidermal dendritic cells Activates immune system to a threat such as a viral or bacterial invasion. Found scattered in the epidermis.
Epidermis Outermost tissue layer of the skin.
Free nerve endings Pain receptors housed in some *dermal papillae*
Hypodermis Connective tissue connecting the integument to the underlying bone and muscle.
Integumentary System Skin and it's accessory structures.
Interstitial fluid A blister is caused by the epidermis and dermis separating. This fluid leaks into the cavity between these layers.
Keratin Type of structure protein that gives skin, hair, and nails it's hard, water resistant properties.
Keratinocyte Cell that produces keratin and is the most predominant type of cell found in the epidermis.
Keratohyalin Granulated protein found in the stratum granulosum.
Lamellar corpuscles Deep pressure receptors
Melanin Protective pigment in the lower layers of the epidermis.
Melanin, Carotene, Hemoglobin Three pigments which contribute to skin colour
Melanocyte Cell found in the stratum basale of the epidermis that produces the pigment melanin.
Melanosome Intercellular vesicle that transfers melanin from melanocytes into keratinocytes of the epidermis.
Merkel Cell Receptor cell in the stratum basale of the epidermis that responds to the sense of touch.
Merkel discs Touch receptors at the epidermal-dermal junction
Papillary Layer Superficial layer of the dermis, made of loose, areolar connective tissue.
Papillary patterns On palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, these are arranged in the patterns which help to increase friction and enhance gripping ability. Create the films of sweat known as fingerprints.
Phagocytes Ingests foreign substances and pathogens to prevent them penetrating into deeper body tissues.
Reticular Layer Deeper layer of the dermis, it has a reticulated appearance due to the presence of abundant collagen and elastin fibers.
Sebaceous gland. Structure connected to the hair follicle.
Sebum Acts as a lubricant of the skin. Prevents drying and cracking of the skin.
Stratified squamous epithelium Skin is composed of two types of tissue; dense (fibrous) connective tissue and ___ ___ ___
Stratum Basale Deepest layer of the epidermis, made of epidermal stem cells.
Stratum Corneum Outmost layer of the epidermis, made up of dead cells (corneocytes). This layer is composed of 20-30 layers of flattened cells with no nuclei and cell organelles.
Stratum Granulosum Layer of the epidermis superficial to the stratum spinosum.
Stratum Lucidium Layer of the epidermis between the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum, found only in thick skin covering the palms, soles of feet & digits.
Stratum Spinosum Layer of the epidermis superficial to the stratum basale, characterized by the presence of demosomes.
Subcutaneous tissue The alternative name for hypodermis.
Vasoconstriction Low temperature causes blood vessels to constrict, maintaining temperature to body core, skin becomes pale.
Vasodilation High temperature causes blood vessels to dilate, releasing more heat - skin becomes pink.
Vitamin D Synthesized by keratinocytes when exposed to UV irradiation (sunlight) from a precursor molecule derived from cholesterol.
Created by: nutmeg169