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Medical Terminology

Ch. 14 - The Nervous System/ Terms

TermDefinition
neurology study of the disease of the nervous system (NS)
neurologist specialist in the diseases of the NS.
hemiplegia paralysis of one half of the body
paraplegia paralysis of both lower limbs (waist down)
quadriplegia paralysis of 4 limbs
autism mental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and inability to communicate.
ataxia lack of muscle coordination; caused by injury to the cerebellum
dyslexia inability to learn and process written language
cerebral palsy mild paralyis due to developmental defects in brain
dementia loss of memory
Alzheimer disease a progressive brain disease that leads to: severe loss of memory, personality change and disorientation to time and place.
coma loss of conciousness w/ absence of response to stimuli
syncope (fainting) temporary loss of conciousness caused by sudden drop in the blood pressure (BP)
Huntington chorea inherited disease characterized by dudden involuntary movements
hydrocephalus accumulation of fluids (Cerebral Spinal Fluid/ CSF) in the brain ventricles.
neurosis unconsious conflict that leads to anxiety or obssession that is called obssessive-compulsive disorder
psychosis emotional disorder characterized by loss of contact w/ reality.
depression mood disorder, sadness, discourage, low-self esteem
panic attack sudden and servere feeling of fear
anorexia nervosa eating disorder, no food intake
bulima nervosa eating disorder, overeating & purging (vomiting/laxative)
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke either caused by blood clot or rupture aneurysm (dilation or ballooning of blood vessels)
transient ischemia attack (TIA) temporary interruption of blood supply to the brain that lasts for a short time.
concussion sudden movement of brain due to trauma and recovery is usually complete.
contusion a bruising of the surface of the brain that leads to some damages.
Parkinson's disease tremors and muscle rigidity, slow momvement
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) loss of myelin sheath and hardening of nervous tissue leading to the muscle weakness.
epilepsy a disease characterized by seizures
Bell's palsy paralysis of one side of the face due to injury to the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve)
neuritis inflammation of the nerve
meningitis inflammation of the meninges
encephalitis inflammation of the brain tissue
anencephaly congenital malformation; part of all the brain is missing (Zika virus)
hyperesthesia excessive sensation to touch and pain
spina bifida abnormal defect (hole) in the vertebrae that leads to protrusion (hernia) of the meniges w/ or w/out part of the SC.
meningocele protrusion of the spinal meninges to the outside
meningomyelocele protrusion of the meninges and SC to the outside (bulging)
computed tomography (CT) taking imaging at different angles and cross section using X rays.
Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) imaging the brain blood vessels using strong magnetic fields after injecting contrast medium.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging the brain using positrons
electroencephalography (EEG) recording the brain electric activity
electromyography (EMG) recording the electric waves in the muscles
angiography imaging of blood vessels after injecting contrast medium
myelography imaging of SC after injecting contrast medium
ultrasonography imaging using high frequency sound waves
echoencephalography imaging the brain using sound echo
lumber puncture (LP) needle puncture of the spinal cavity to obtain a sample of the CSF.
CSF analysis a series of tests done on the CSF to diagnose different disease
Created by: Hip