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articulations a & p

bone articulations

a point of contact between bones articulation
joints are divided into three classes synarthroses (immovable), amphiarthroses (slightly movable), and diarthroses
synarthroses joints fibrous, immovable ex: sutures of the skull
amphiarthroses joints cartilagenous, slighty movable ex: symphysis pubis
diarthroses joints synovial, freely movable, ex: shoulder joint
three subtypes of fibrous joints syndesmoses, sutures, and gomphoses
syndesmoses joints joints in which fibrous bands (ligaments) connect two bones.
sutures lines of fusion between opposing skull bones
gomphoses joints that occur between the root of a tooth and the alveolar process of the mandible or maxilla
symphysis joint joint in which a pad or disk of fibrocartilage connects two bones
Synovial joints freely movable joints
seven structures characterize synovial joints joint capusule, synovial membrane, articular cartiladge, joint cavity, menisci, ligaments, bursae
Joint capsule extension of the periosteum of each articulating bone. forms a complete casing around the ends of the bones, thereby binding them to each other.
Synovial membrane slippery membrane that lines the inner surface of the joint capsule. It attaches to the margins of the articular cartilage. It also secretes synovial fluid, which lubricates and nourishes the inner joint surfaces.
Articular cartilage Thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering and cushioning the articular surfaces of bones.
Joint cavity Small space between the articulating surfaces of the two bones of the joint
Menisci Pads of fibrocartilage located between the articulating ends of bones
Ligaments Strong cords of dense, white fibrous tissue at most synovial joints
Some synovial joints contain a closed pillowlike structure called a Bursae
Types of synovial joints hinge, pivot, saddle, condyloid, ball and socket, gliding
Widest range of movement; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, circumduction ball and socket ex: shoulder and hip
joint with angular or circular movements gliding ex: joint between metacarpal and carpal bones
joint with flexion and extension only hinge ex: elbow
condyloid joints joint between radius and carpal bones
saddle joint joint between the first metacarpal and carpal bone
type of joint between the first and second cervical vertebrae pivot
joints that occur at points of articulation between the carpal bones intercarpal joints
caused by an internal rotation injury to the anterior talofibular ligament sprained ankle
types and range of movement of synovial joints angular, circular, gliding, special
decreases the angle between bones Flexion
increases the angle between bones Extension
stretching an extended part beyond its anatomical position hyperextension
when the foot is stretched down and back plantar flexion
occurs when the foot is tilted upward, thus decreasing the angle between the top of the foot and the front of the leg Dorsiflexion
moves a part away from the median plane of the body, <vbk:0-323-03718-6#outline(> Abduction
part moved towards the median plane Examples include bringing the arm back to the side or moving fingers toward the midline of the hand. Adduction
turns the sole of the foot inward Inversion
turns it outward Everesion
moves a part forward Protraction
an acute musculoskeletal injury to the ligamentous structures surrounding a joint sprain
Created by: srehrauer