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The Head and Neck

CCRI-Newport Q7

QuestionAnswer
alveolus (alveoli) These depressions are found in both of the maxillary bones and the mandible. They are functionally important as the teeth are cemented into these depressions.
anterior triangle of the neck The digastric muscle, sternohyoid muscle and the sternocleidomastoid muscle in humans define this area. In the cat there is no sternocleidomastoid muscle, rather the sternomastoid muscle defines it.
arytenoid cartilages This cartilage is the only one of cartilages of the larynx that we will study that is split into two pieces. It forms the walls of the glottis and anchors the vocal cords.
bone collagen The intercellular matrix of the tooth and bone tissue is made of hydroxyapatite (mostly) and this material. These protein fibers add stability to the matrix as steel reinforcement rods add stability to cement in the construction of large objects.
cells These are the live portion of the tooth. They are capable of repairing the tooth when it is damaged. They require a blood supply to stay alive.
cementum This is a hard material (calcified connective tissue) that helps secure the tooth into its alveolus by attaching the tooth to the periodontal membrane (ligament).
clavicle This bone is part of the appendicular skeleton. It articulates with the scapula and the manubrium of humans while in cats it floats. In humans it acts as a brace for the scapula, It serves as origin and insertion for a number of muscles.
clavotrapezius muscle This is a cat muscle that corresponds to the superior division of the human counterpart. This muscle elevates and retracts (adducts) the scapula. It is served by the spinal accessory nerve. It inserts on the clavicle.
cleidomastoid muscle This muscle combines with the sternomastoid muscle in humans, but in cats it remains separate. It is at least partially covered by the clavotrapezius of the cat.
common carotid artery Normally branches of the brachiocephalic artery. Humans: the right vessel is a branch of the brachiocephalic artery, the left is a branch of the aorta. Found in the carotid sheath on each side with the vagosympathetic trunk and the internal jugular vein.
cranial laryngeal artery This vessel is a medial branch of the common carotid artery. It serves the cranial end of the larynx.
cranial thyroid artery This artery is the first medial branch of the common carotid artery that we will study in the cat. It serves the thyroid gland.
cricoid (signet ring) cartilage This cartilage of the larynx is the only cartilage that forms a complete ring. It is narrow anteriorly and wide posteriorly. It is connected superiorly to the thyroid cartilage and inferiorly to the trachea. It forms most of posterior wall of the larynx.
crown The exposed part of a healthy tooth. A thin layer of enamel (2-2.5 mm) covers it. Under the enamel is dentin. In the center of the tooth is the pulp cavity filled with pulp. This part of the tooth meets the root at the neck close to the gingiva (gum).
dentin This material underlies the enamel in the crown of the tooth and forms the hard part of the root of the tooth. It is about 64.5% hydroxyapatite, this being harder than bone. It is more porous than enamel.
digastric muscle This muscle depresses the mandible. When one opens their mouth they are depressing the mandible.
enamel This is the hardest material in a human unless you have foreign objects in you, not that there is anything wrong with that. It is about 92% hydroxyapatite, accounting for its hardness. It is about 2 to 2.5 mm thick on the outside of the crown.
epiglottic cartilage (epiglottis) The superior most of the laryngeal cartilages. It projects superiorly and attaches to the tongue. Functionally it is important in humans because during swallowing it covers the opening of the larynx when the larynx moves superiorly.
esophagus Begins at the inferior end of the pharynx. Passes through the cervical region, then the thoracic cavity, then the diaphragm at the level of T10 body at midinhalation, then the stomach. Importance: transports food from the pharynx to the stomach.
Eustachian (pharyngotympanic or auditory) tube Drains the middle and helps equilibrate pressure on both sides of eardrum.
exocrine gland This is the name for an organ that produces secretions that pass through a duct (except for one-celled goblet cells). The secretions pass into a cavity or onto the surface of the body.
external carotid artery This branch of the common carotid artery has many branches that we study. They include the sublingual artery and the external maxillary artery. It brings blood to the areas of the head external to the cranial cavity.
external jugular vein It emerges from the deep side of the neck muscles and runs caudally to meet the subclavian vein on the same side in the cat. This union forms the brachiocephalic vein on each side. This vein receives blood from the head region except the cranial cavity.
external maxillary artery This vessel is a medial branch of the external carotid artery that arises cranial to the lingual (sublingual) artery in the cat. It runs deep to the digastric muscle and supplies blood to the salivary glands and the masseter muscle.
external nares These are the external openings on each side that lead into the nasal cavities. These openings are normally used to allow air into and out of the nasal cavities.
facial nerve (VII) Its both motor and sensory. It has parasympathetic functions controlling the lacrimal gland, as well as the mandibular and sublingual salivary glands. It exits from the skull via the stylomastoid foramen. Both branches bracket the masseter muscle.
gingiva In nursery school we called this the gum. Importance: Forms a seal around the neck of the tooth that keeps food and bacteria away from the surface of the root where there is no enamel and the dentin would be exposed and susceptible to the decay process.
glossopharyngeal (IX) This is a cranial nerve that controls the parotid salivary gland. It leaves the cranium by way of the jugular foramen. It includes both motor and sensory neurons, as well as parasympathetic neurons.
glottis This is the name for the opening between the vocal cords that leads into the trachea.
hard palate This structure is the bony portion of the roof of the oral cavity. It is formed anteriorly by the palatine processes of the two maxillary bones and posteriorly by the horizontal plates of the two palatine bones.
hydroxyapatite This mineral makes up the majority of the intercellular matrix of the tooth and bone tissue. It is a calcium phosphate base with one hydroxide group for every 5 calcium atoms and 3 phosphate ions.
hyoid bone This bone does not articulate with any other bones. It is held in place by ligaments to the styloid process of the temporal bone and the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. It also has muscle attachments.
hypoglossal nerve (XII) This cranial nerve is a motor nerve that serves the muscles of the tongue. It runs with the sublingual artery.
internal carotid artery Although this vessel is too small to find in the cat, it is of particular significance as it is one of two vessels on each side that carry blood to the brain. They enter the cranium by passing through the carotid canal of the temporal bone.
internal jugular vein This vessel is part of the carotid sheath, which also includes the common carotid artery and the vagosympathetic trunk. It usually joins the external jugular vein before the junction with the subclavian vein.
internal nares These openings are on each side of the nasal septum. They lead from the nasal cavities into the nasopharynx. These openings are normally used to allow air into and out of the nasal cavities.
laryngopharynx This cavity is the inferior division of the pharynx, extending from the epiglottis inferiorly and posteriorly to the larynx to the openings of the esophagus and larynx. Functionally it is important because both food and air pass through this space.
larynx This structure is made up of four major cartilages and houses the vocal cords. Functionally it is important because it connects the pharynx with the trachea, as well as being the structure where sound is produced. It extends between C4 and C6.
mandible This is a single bone of the face. It articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and irritation of this joint leads to the condition known as TMJ syndrome. When we were in nursery school we called it the lower jaw.
mandibular nerve (V3) This nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve (V). It is a sensory nerve to the skin of the face, oral cavity, and the teeth of the mandible. It passes through three foramina as it leaves the brain.
mandibular (submaxillary) salivary gland Lies deep to the mandibular body anterior to the angle of the mandible in humans. Its duct opens lateral to the frenulum of the tongue. Its secretions are controlled by the facial nerve (VII).
masseter muscle This muscle, which is the prime elevator (closer) of the mandible, originates on the inferior margin of the zygomatic arch. It inserts on the mandible. In the cat it is partly covered by the parotid salivary gland.
mastoid process Part of the temporal bone. It is the insertion for the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Several other muscles that you will not be responsible for also attach to this landmark. As a group these muscles are responsible for rotation or extension of the head.
maxillary bone There are two of these bones and they are considered part of the face. They form the upper jaw, as well as the anterior two thirds of the hard palate. They also form the lateral walls of the nasal cavities, and a portion of the bony orbit of the eye.
maxillary nerve (V2) This nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve (V). It is a sensory nerve to the skin of the face, oral cavity, and the teeth of the maxillary bones. It passes through three foramina as it leaves the brain.
mouth This cavity extends from the outside to the oralpharynx. It contains the tongue and the teeth.
muscular artery (branch) This vessel is a lateral branch of the common carotid artery. It leaves the common carotid close to the cranial thyroid artery and supplies blood to the muscles of the cervical region.
nasal septum This structure is a wall between the two nasal cavities. It is made of two bones (inferiorly the vomer and superiorly the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid) and anteriorly by a septal cartilage. It is covered by mucous membranes on both sides.
nasopharynx (nasalpharynx) This space is the superior/posterior division of the pharynx. Normally air passes through this space on its way to or from the trachea. The pharyngeal and tubal tonsils are found in this space, as well as the eustachian tube of the middle ear.
oropharynx (oralpharynx) This space is the superior/anterior division of the pharynx. It is posterior to the oral cavity and extends from the soft palate to the epiglottis. Both food and air pass through this space. There are two tonsils in this space.
parasympathetic nerves These nerves form one of the two functional subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system. They are responsible for the 'feed or breed' response. These nerves are responsible for preparing the body for digestion and gestation.
parotid salivary gland This gland is the largest of the salivary glands. It lies superficial to the masseter muscle. As with most glands, it has a rough texture. It is an exocrine gland. Its secretions are controlled by the glossopharyngeal nerve (XII).
periodontal ligament (membrane) This structure is primarily connective tissue and it surrounds the root of the tooth. The cementum actually secures the tooth to this structure and this holds the tooth in its alveolus. It is continuous with the periosteum that surrounds the bone.
periosteum Primarily a fibrous connective tissue membrane that surrounds all bones, except at the articular surfaces. Produces/removes bone tissue from the surface of the bone, and increases diameter of bones as they grow longer. Has nerves and blood supply.
perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone The superior portion of the bony nasal septum, which separates the left and right nasal cavities. It is also of significance because olfactory receptors are found in the epithelium that covers the superior surfaces of this structure.
posterior triangle of the neck The sternocleidomastoid muscle, trapezius, and clavicle in humans define this area. In the cat there is no sternocleidomastoid muscle, rather the cleidomastoid muscle defines it.
pulp (includes blood vessels and nerves) Located in the pulp cavity.Because the tooth is alive, the vessels are necessary to provide nutrients and remove cellular wastes. The nerves are sensitive to both pressure and temperature changes. Named for a famous religious leader that lives in Rome.
pulp cavity This is the space within the crown and root of the tooth that is occupied by the pulp.
root This part of the tooth is the portion that is in the alveolus (socket). Cells live in the intercellular matrix.
root canal This is the narrow part of the pulp cavity that is primarily within the root of the tooth. It is occupied by the pulp.
Saliva An exocrine secretion. It contains water, electrolytes, mucus, and salivary amylase (ptyalin). It moistens the mouth, helps control bacteria (mucus and enzymes), helps regulate the mouth's pH to be about 7.2, helps lubricate the food. aka spit.
salivary amylase (ptyalin) This enzyme is found in saliva. It converts starch into disaccharides
soft palate This structure is muscular tissue. Functionally it is important because during the act of swallowing it block the internal nares so that food and liquids do not move into the nasal cavity.
spinal accessory nerve (XI) It controls muscles that attach to the skull and the scapula. It controls the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the trapezius muscle. It is also unusual because it leaves the cranium by way of the foramen magnum and the jugular foramen.
sternocleidomastoid muscle A human miscle thatinserts on the mastoid process and originates on the clavicle and sternum. Forms part of the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck in a human. If both muscles contract the head bends. If only one side contracts the head rotates.
sternohyoid muscle This muscle originates on the sternum and inserts on the hyoid bone. It depresses the larynx and mandible.
sternomastoid muscle This is a cat muscle that originates on the sternum and inserts on the mastoid process. If both this muscle contracts on both sides the snout is depressed, while if only one of them contracts it depresses the snout and turns the head.
subclavian artery and vein On the right one of these vessels is a branch of the brachiocephalic artery. On the left one of these vessels is the fourth branch of the aorta. Drains blood from the upper limb back toward the heart.
sublingual (lingual) artery This vessel is a medial branch of the external carotid artery. It runs with the hypoglossal nerve along the medial margin of the digastric muscle. Functionally it is important because it supplies the tongue with blood.
sublingual salivary gland In the cat this structure is situated deep to the submaxillary duct and the digastric muscle. It has its own ducts that open ventral to the tongue. Its secretions are controlled by the facial nerve (VII).
sympathetic trunk This nerve runs along each side of the vertebral column. It receives neurons from anterior rami of the spinal nerves via the sympathetic trunk ganglia. It serves many organs from the head to the pelvis. Runs with the vagus(X) in the cervical region.
thyroid cartilage This structure is the largest of the laryngeal cartilages and larger in sexually mature males due to the effect of sex hormones. It forms part of the walls of the glottis and is the insertion for the sternothyroid muscle.
thyroid gland This structure is a bilobate endocrine gland. It is located inferior to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx and lateral to the trachea. It is the largest purely endocrine gland in the body.
tongue This organ is attached to the floor of the oral cavity. It is the primary organ responsible for the sense of taste. It also aids in the mastication of food. It is responsible for modifying the sound produced by the vocal cords into words.
tonsils These are lymphoid organs. There are four groups of them. Functionally they are important because they remove pathogens that enter the pharynx. Cells in them are part of our immune system. When they become inflamed they are sometimes called adenoids.
tooth These organs project from the mandible and two maxillary bones into the oral cavity. They are functionally important as they help break food into small pieces.
trachea This is a tube connecting the larynx with the primary bronchi. This structure is reinforced with 16 to 20 "C" shaped cartilaginous rings to prevent it from collapsing when the pressure inside drops. Lined with ciliated epithelial cells.
trapezius muscle This human muscle is served by the spinal accessory nerve (XI). It is one of the muscles of the scapula. It elevates, depresses, adducts (retracts), and rotates the scapula.
uvula This structure is a conical projection. The zoological root means small grape. It assists the soft palate in blocking the internal nares during swallowing.
vagosympathetic trunk This nerve runs along each side of the trachea in the carotid sheath. It is formed where the vagus nerve and sympathetic trunk run adjacent to each other. They do not actually become one structure, and can be separated with a probe.
vagus nerve (X) Cranial nerve X. It is the only cranial nerve to pass into the body cavities below the neck. It is primarily parasympathetic in nature and is the major nerve affecting the heart and most of the gastrointestinal tract.
vocal cords These structures are anchored to the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx. They are spread apart to facilitate breathing, but when they are closed they vibrate as air passes over them. This results in sound production.
vomer This bone is a single bone of the face. It Is of functional importance because it forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum. It starts as a large portion of that septum posteriorly and then narrows to a point. Anteriorly the septum is cartilage.
Created by: kboyer