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Medical Terminology

Ch. 11 - The Urinary System/ Terms

TermDefinition
urology the study of conditions related to the urinary system
urologist specialist in disease of the urinary system
nephrology the study of diseases of the kidney
nephrologist specialist in the diseases of the kidney
glomerulonephritis inflammation of the kidney glomeruli
pyelonephritis inflammation of kidney pelvis (usually caused by bacteria)
cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder that caused by bacteria, more common in female
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) infection of Urinary Tract caused by bacteria
acute renal failure sudden stoppage of kidney function; recovery is usually complete
chronic renal failure gradual failure of the kidney functions; requires dialysis or kidney transplant
End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) permanent loss of kidney function; requires dialysis for life or kidney transplant
polycystic kidney inherited disease characterized by the formation of many cysts in the kidney
nephrolithiasis presence of stones in kidney (calculi)
urolithiasis presence of stones in any part of the urinary tract
hydronephrosis accumulation of a large amount of urine in the kidney pelvis due to obstruction
hydroureter accumulation of a large amount of urine in the ureter
nephrotic syndrome a condition characterized by: protein in urine (proteinuria), edema, hypertension
Bladder Neck Obstruction (BNS) blockage at the base of the bladder that prevents the flow of urine; more common in male
Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN) necrosis of the kidney tubules due to ischemia (not enough blood) and toxin
enuresis (incontinence) inability to control urine; involuntary urination
nocturnal enuresis involuntary urination at night (uncontrol)
stress incontinence leakage of a small amount of urine during phusical activity; coughing, laughing, sneezing and physical exercise
dysuria painful or difficult urination
oliguria small volume of urine
polyuria large volume of urine
anuria absence of urine production
hematuria blood in urine
nocturia excessive urination at night (control)
frequency more frequent urination
hesitancy delay in starting urination
urgency desire to urinate immediately
urine analysis examining a urine specimen: physical, chemical, or microscopic
Culture and Sensitivity (C&S) growing bacteria in urine and testing its sensitivity to various antibiotics
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) blood test to check the kidney function
ultrasonography imaging the kidney and other internal organs using high frequency sound waves
radiographic examination (x-ray) of the Kidney, Ureter & Bladder (KUB) plain x-ray for the kidney, ureter and bladder
Intravenous Pyelography (IVP) radiographic examination (x-ray) of the Kidney Pelvis, Ureter & Bladder (KUB) after IV injection of a dye (contrast medium)
retrograde pyelography radiographic examination (x-ray) of the kidney pelvis after injection a contrast medium through the urethra
cystourethrography radiographic examination (x-ray) of the urinary bladder and urethra
Computed Tomography (CT) imaging of the body at different angles and cross sections
cystoscopy visual examination of the urinary bladder
urethroscopy visual examination of the urethra
nephroscopy visual examination of the kidney
nephrectomy surgical removal of one of the kidney
nepropexy fixation of a mobile (loose) kidney
ureterectomy surgical removal of the ureter
ureteroplasty surgical repair of the ureter
urethrotomy making an incision into the urethra to treat urethral stricture (narrowing)
urethrostomy creating an opening between the urethra and the skin
hemodialysis removal of toxins from the blood by hemodialysis machine
peritoneal dialysis removal of toxins by filtration through the peritoneum
extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy crushing of kidney through the skin
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