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Chapter 13

Opthamologists specialize in what? Refractive disorders, prescribing medication, and perfroming various types of surgical procedures on the eye
Optometrists are not medical doctors but are licensed to perfom Visual acuity testing, and prescribe corrective lenses to treat refractive errors
Opticians can fill prescriptions for eyeglasses and contact lenses
Opticians can NOT Diagnose, prescribe, treat eye disorders
Myopia (nearsightedness) ability to see objects that are up close
hyperopia (Farsightedness) ability to see objects that are far away
Presbyopia Farsightedness due to aging
Astigmatism abnormal curvature of the cornea causing blurry vision
Used to test for distance visual acuity in adults and school aged children Snellen Chart
Consisting of the letter "E" arranged in different directions and decreasing sizes; Used for non English speaking people Tumbling E Chart
Features a set of circles with different segments missing from each circle Landolt C Chart
Used to test preschoolers aged 3-5 Snellen Letters, Snellen numbers, picture test, and allen figures
Consists of the The title letters in descending orders HOTV Chart
When testing patients with known visual disorders, begin with The eye with the poorest vision
(distant) DISTANCE Visual Acuity Snelling
NEAR Visual Acuity Jaegar
Pink eye is also known as Conjuctivitis
Steps for screening distance visual acuity with and without glasses, while keeping both eyes open are Right eye, Left eye, then both eyes.
20/20 Vision: top number is How far the patient was standing from the chart (20 feet)
20/20 Vision: bottom number is How far away the average person is when they can see the chart
20/20 Vision - the higher the bottom number is the worse the vision
Type of chart that uses color plates containing different sized circles that contain primary colored dots that form a number or shape against a background of contrasting colored dots The Ishira Chart
Type of chart that measures contrast sensitivity by defining The faintest contrast the patient can see Pelli-Robson Chart
Type of chart that consists of several charts with a different-sized levels in low contrast The Regan Chart
Eye Instillation is performed for variety of reasons; they are as follows- To treat infections and relieve inflammation, Dilate or constrict the pupil, anesthetize the eye for examination, stimulate circulation in the eye
Eye Irrigation means to Flush out
solutions commonly used to irrigate the eye Lactated ringers solution, Sterile saline, Sterile Water
The Ear: Responsible for hearing and maintaining equilibrium
The Ear: divided into 3 parts- External ear, middle ear, inner ear
The Ear: Auricle or Pinna Visible portion of ear made up of cartilage covered with skin; receives and collects sound waves
The Ear: External auditory canal - Passageway approximately 1'' in length, lined with hair and glands that produce cerumen (wax)
The Ear: Tympanic Membrane- Separates external ear from middle ear and receives sound waves collected by auricle
Instrument used to visualize the tympanic membrane for irritation or perforation- Otoscope
Otorhinolaryngologist specializes in - Ear, Nose, And throat (aka ENT)
General Practitioner is - Trained to treat mild disorders of the ear, such as infections.
Audiologist - Identifies and treats hearing or balance problems and performs hearing tests, dispenses hearing aids and assistive listening devices
Conduction Loss - is when Sound waves cannot reach the middle ear due to impacted cerumen; obstructions of the ear canal, such as foreign bodies or polyps and swelling due to otitis media; and scarred tympanic membrane
Nerve Deafness - is when sound waves cannot be transmitted to the auditory centers in the brain. Causes are --- Heredity, damage from infectious diseases like mumps or measles, prolonged exposure to loud noise, tumors and degeneration due to aging.
Signs that may indicate hearing loss -- Patient - speaks in loud voice, frequently asks you to repeat what was said, does not respond when spoken to, does not pronounce words well, responds only when spoken to in loud voice.
Complaints from patients that should be reported are injury to ear, ringing, decreased hearing, bleeding or discharge from the ear, and noise or a "full" feeling in the ear.
Type of test that is performed on patients that can hear better in one ear than the other ear by vibrating a tuning fork that's held against the crown of the head Weber Test
Rinne Test Compares air conduction to bone conduction
Rinne Test: Air Conduction Test - Vibrating prongs held in front of auditory opening
Rinne Test: Bone Conduction test - Stem of tuning fork is struck and placed against the mastoid bone
Rinne Test Results: Normal Hearing sound is heard twice as long by air conduction than by bone conduction;
Rinne Test Results: Conduction Loss sound is heard longer by bone conduction than air conduction;
Rinne Test Results: Sensorineural loss sound is heard longer during air conduction but not nearly as long as in patients with normal hearing
Weber Test Results: Normal Hearing Sound heard equally in both ears
Weber Test Results: Conduction Loss sound can be heard better in affected ear
Weber Test Results: Sensorineural hearing loss Sound heard better in unaffected ear
Specialized instrument that measures hearing acuity at different frequencies Audiometer
Audiometry - Provides information about extent of hearing loss and which frequencies are involved; Sound measured in decibels
Ear Instillation is performed for variety of reasons; they are as follows- Treatment of infections; to relieve pain; to soften impacted cerumen for easier removal
Ear Irrigation is performed to -- Dislodge foreign objects; cleanse ear canal; remove impacted cerumen; reduce inflammation
Common Solutions for EAR irrigation are -- water and saline
Solution for EAR irrigation should be warmed to 99-100 Degrees
Instrument used to visualize the interior of the eye Ophthalmoscope
What exam determines if sound is being transmitted by the middle ear? Tympanometry - probe is placed snugly in patient's ear and pressure is applied in ear canal while transmitting low-frequency sounds.
Device used for a Tympanometry exam? Tympanometer
Created by: izzy10123
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