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A&P2 Lab Practical 1


Name the major endocrine organs: From Superior to Inferior. Pineal gland, Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland (anterior&posterior),Thyroid gland, Parathyroid glands(on dorsal aspect),Thymus, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, and the gonads(teste&ovaries)
Name the hormones secreted by the Anterior Pituitary Gland(adenohypophysis) Gonadotropins=Follicel-Stimulating hormone(FSH) And Luteinizing Hormone(LH) then Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH),Growth hormone(GH),Prolactin(PRL).
What hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland? Thyroid hormone(TH)=T3&T4, also Calcitonin.
Which gland produces Insulin&Glucagon? The Pancreas
The Adrenal Glands produce what in the medullary portion? Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
The Adrenal Cortex produces what 3 major groups of steriod hormones? 1. Corticosteriods 2.Mineralocorticoids 3.Glucocorticoids
What is the Pineal gland's major endocrine product? Only Melatonin
Name the Hormones of the posterior pituitary gland(neuropophysis) Oxytocin & Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH)
Gonads are chiefly responsible in producing? Estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone.
When the thyroid glands are actively secreting what is the physiological state of the tissue? Follicles are small, and Colloids foggy with white ruffled borders.
Inactive Thyroid glands are? Squamous like, with large plump follicle.
What does parathyroid look like under microscope? Blueberries, some squished & some formed
What is evident physiologically with pancreas tissue? It has Pancreatic Islets(aka islets of Langerhans)
What does the Posterior pituitary look like, under microscope Observable pink threads (nerve fibers-axons) and purple dots known to be Pituicytes
Name the areas of the adrenal gland-->going from superficial to deep. Zona Glomerulosa, Zona fasciculata, Zona Reticularis, Medulla cells.
If blood is spun in a centrifuge what is packed down? In the middle?and on top? Bottom: Erythocytes(RBC's) Middle:Buffy Coat=Leukocytes(WBC)&platelets Top: Plasma
Characteristics of blood are? Sticky, opaque, metallic taste, dense, slightly alkaline, temo 100.4, measuring 4-6L pr.adult.
When performing a Differential WBC what do you do with your slide? Zig~Zag motion, count 100 WBC's, and classify according to type in percentages.
What is the significance of A total WBC count? Check for Leukocytosis for elevated #'s or leukopenia=decreased wbc's
What is the significance of total RBC count? To check for Anemia=decreased RBC's or polycemia=increased RBC's
What does abnormal WBC counts along with reduced RBC's and platelets indicate? Leukemia
Name the WBC's different cell types from most common-->least. Neutrophils,Lymphocytes, monocytes, Eosinophils, basophils. *(N.ever L.et M.onkeys E.at B.ananas)*
Eosinophils attack? Parasites
Elevated Basophils indicate? An allergic reaction
Increased Lymphocytes means? Possible infection
Monocytes differentiate into what? Macrophages.
Define Hematocrit? Test routinely done to check for anemia. AKA: packed cell volume(PCV) by using centerfuge, and cap tubes(heparinized)
What is used when determining Coagulation? Unheparinized cap. tube(causes fibrin to break off into pieces)
What is the normal Coagulation time? 2-6 minutes
When blood typing presence of clotting with anti-rh indicates? An Rh+ person
Blood that clots with anti-A but not anti-B Type B
Blood that didn't clumped with either Antibodies would be what? type O
What is the universal recipient? AB
All blood cells derive from? A stem cell known as Hemocytoblast
What is the fetal disease known to be from an RH- mom,with Rh+ fetus? Erythroblastosis fetalis
What is the largest artery in the body? The Aorta
What is the Pulmonary flow of blood from Vena cava -->to lungs?Then Systemical flow onward back? Vena Cavae->R.Atrium->R.Ventricle->Pulmonary arteries->Capillary beds->(gas exchange +O) ->pulmonary veins-> L.ATrium-> L.Ventricle-> Aorta and it branches->Cap. beds of all body tissues(gas exchange-O)->inferior Vena cavae
The left side of the Heart is specifically designated for? Systemic circulation. High pressure expulsion & O2 rich/CO2 poor blood. (more muscular)
The right side of heart is more for? Pulmonary circulation, O2poor/CO2 rich.
Typically veins carry O2 poor blood to heart& arteries transports O2 rich blood from heart to body, except in what? The pulmonary circulation, the opposite occurs. (Veins= O2+blood to heart & Arteries=O2-from heart)
Name layers of heart superficial->deep? Epicardium(w/adipose) Myocardium(muscle=contractions) Endocardium(lines heart chambers)
Which is more thicker&compose of more elastic, the aorta vs. Vena Cava? The Aorta (so it may handle more higher volumes of pressure to disburse to distal portions of body.)
Which ventricle is thickest? The Left (muscle side)
How do the sheeps valves & heart's anatomy compare to that of the humans? It's the same
Describe smooth muscle? Visceral, nonstriated(w.scattered uninuclei), and involuntary.
Describe Cardiac Muscle? Only in heart! Striated, involuntary, branches uni-or binucleated, attached by discs.
Describe skeletal muscle? Longest, most densely packed fibers of muscle tissues, obvious striations, voluntary,multinucleate
Where would you find sounds of the tricuspid valve? Right sternal margin of 5th intercostal space
Where would you find sounds of the aortic valve? Right sternal margin of 2nd intercostal space
If you move to left sternal margin, 2nd intercostal space which valve would you hear? Pulmonary valve
and now moving downward over hearts apex @5th intercostal space, midline with clavicle, what sound is heard? Mitral Valve
What is the amount of blood pumped out pr. minute? The (CO) Cardiac output
What is the product of CO? Heart rate and stroke volume
Created by: 1596800636