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Respiratory Review

Describe the nasal cavity Chamber lined with mucous membranes and tiny cilia
What are olfactory neurons? Receptors for the sense of smell
What happens to CO2 as it enters pulmonary capillaries? It diffuses from the blood within the pulmonary capillaries and enters alveolar spaces
What happens to the diaphragm when we breathe?  Contracts during inspiration  Relaxes during expiration
What is external respiration? Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli and the blood in pulmonary capillaries
What is internal respiration? Exchange of O2 and CO2 between body cells and the blood in systemic capillaries
What is pulmonary ventilation? breathing
Describe the transport of respiratory gases? When blood transports CO2 to the lungs and O2 to body cells
What is the respiratory system responsible for? Exchange of O2 and CO2
What are exudates? Fluid that is usually high in protein and often contains blood and immune cells
What are transudates? Non-inflammatory fluid that resembles serum but with slightly less protein
What are the causes of asthma? Allergens  Irritants  Stress  Cold  exercise
What are the three major disorders included in COPD? Asthma  Chronic bronchitis  Emphysema
What is emphysema? Characterized by decreased elasticity of the alveoli
Cystic fibrosis A hereditary disease of the exocrine glands affecting the respiratory system, pancreas, and sweat glands
Rhonchus Abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation
Crackle Abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation; also called rale
Anosmia Absence of the sense of smell
Pertussis Acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a “whoop” sound
Tuberculosis An infectious disease caused by inhaling viable tubercle bacilli; aka acid-fast bacillus
Pneumonia An inflammatory disease of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, disease, chemicals, etc
Antihistamine Block histamines from binding with histamine receptor sites in tissues
Atelectasis Collapsed or airless state of the lung, may be acute or chronic
Palatine Tonsils Collection of lymphatic tissue within the oropharynx
Asphyxia Condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
Pneumoconiosis Disease caused by inhaling dust particles
Compliance Ease with which lung tissue can be stretched
Pleural Effusion Excess of fluid in the pleural cavity
Pneumectomy Excision of a lung
Pleurectomy Excision of part of the pleura
Viscous Extremely thick
Stridor High-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound
Thoracic (chest) x-ray Images of the chest taken from AP, PA and lateral views
Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleural membrane
Mantoux test Intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity
Measurement of the amount of salt in sweat used to diagnose CF Sweat test
Measurement of ventilator ability by assessing lung capacity and flow Spirometry
Method of monitoring the percent of Hb saturated with O2 Oximetry
Moving or spreading out of a substance at random Diffuse
Multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air Pulmonary function tests
Nosebleed Epistaxis
Nuclear scanning test primarily used to detect pulmonary emboli Lung scan
Positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs Postural drainage
Relieve or suppress coughing Antitussive
Spasms in the bronchial passage Bronchospasms
Stimulate bronchial muscles to relax and expand air passages Bronchodilators
Surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity Thoracentesis
Tasteless, colourless, odourless gas produced by body cells during the metabolic process Carbon dioxide
Tasteless, odourless, colourless gas essential for human respiration Oxygen
Temporary loss of breathing Apnea
Test that measures PO2, PCO2, pH, and bicarbonate level of an arterial blood sample Arterial blood gases
Test used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptococci Throat culture
The innermost layer lying next to the lung Visceral pleura
The outermost layer, lining the lung Parietal pleura
The process of gently tapping with the fingers to determine position, size or consistency of an underlying structure Percussion
The process of listening to body sounds, especially in the chest, with the use of a stethoscope Auscultation
The process of providing the body with adequate amounts of oxygen Oxygenation
Throat Pharynx
Viable Alive
Visual examination of the larynx Laryngoscopy
Visual examination of the mediastinal structures Mediastinoscopy
Voice box Larynx
Whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation Wheeze
Windpipe Trachea
ABG arterial blood gases
AFB acid-fast bacillus
AP anteroposterior
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
CO2 carbon dioxide
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CT computed tomography
DPI dry powder inhaler
DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
FVC forced vital capacity
Hb hemoglobin
HMD hyaline membrane disease
Hx history
IRDS infant respiratory distress syndrome
MDI metered-dose inhaler
NMT nebulized mist treatment
O2 oxygen
PFT pulmonary function tests
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
RDS respiratory distress syndrome
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
SOB shortness of breath
T&A tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
TB tuberculosis
TPR temperature pulse respiration
URI upper respiratory infection
VC vital capacity
Created by: brigitte1112