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Chapter 23

Red Shirts The guerrilla army of Garibaldi who fought to unify Italy
Crimean War War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire that Russia lost and showed it that it was behind industrially and militarily
Bloody Sunday Massacre in St. Petersburg in 1905 in which Russian protesters were shot by guards
October Manfesto Declaration by Tsar Nicholas II granting a constitution and creating a Duma after Bloody Sunday
Duma Russian Parliament
Tanzimat A set of reforms designed to remake the Ottoman Empire on a western European model
Young Turks Turkish patriots who forced the the conservative sultan to implement reforms
Reichstag Lower house of government in Germany
Kulturkampf Bismarck's attack on the Church in response to the Pope's declaration of infallibility
German Social Democratic Party (SPD) German working-class party
Dreyfus Affair case in which a Jewish captain in the French army was falsely accused and convicted for treason. Because the Catholic Church took the side of the anti-Semites, France cut ties between church and state.
People's Budget bill proposed by British Liberal Party in 1905 designed to increase spending on social welfare services.
Zionism Jewish nationalism that sought to create a homeland in Palestine
revisionism an effort by moderate socialists to update Marxist doctrines to reflect modern realities
anti-Semitism hatred of Jews
Created by: birmingham