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The _______, scattered throughout the brain stem, allow us to filter out unimportant sensory information such as background noises. reticular formation
a(n) _____ is a recording of the brain's electrical activity. EEG (electroencephalogram)
Alpha and beta brainwaves occur _____, while theta waves are more common in ______. primary in alert adults; children
delta waves occur _____. during deep sleep
during _____ sleep, skeletal muscle movement is inhabited and most dreams occur. REM
During _____ sleep, the brain wave pattern mimic wakefulness REM
the type of memory that allows us to complete actions without committing them to permanent memory is called ____ or ____ memory. short-term
In order for a memory to become permanent, it must be _____. associated with pre-existing memories
memories of specific words, associations, or facts are classified as _____ or ____ memory. factual; declarative (or explicit)
riding a bike or roller skating are examples of _____ or ____ memory. skill; propcedural (or implicit)
damage to the ____ will prevent the acquisition of new declarative memories. limbic system.
procedural memory is mediated by the ____, one of the basal nuclei corpus striatum
two changes that occur at the cellular level in the formation of new ____, or changes in the strength of the ____. synapses; response at existing synapses.
the addition of extra neurotransmitter receptors at an existing synapse during the formation of a memory to make the synapse more responsive to a brief signal is an example of _____. long-term potentiation
the ____ are a set of three connective tissue membranes that surround the CNS meninges
the tough, fibrous, doubled layered, outermost meninx is the ____. dura mater
the separation between the cerebral hemispheres is reinforced by an extension of the dura mater called ____: anteriorly it is attached to the crista galli of the skull, and so helps to hold the brain in position. falx cerebri
the ____ are tubes that are formed between the two layers of the dura mater through which venous blood flows dural sinuses
the ___ is the middle meninx arachnoid mater
the ____ is the innemost meninx: it clings tightly to the surface of the brain, even in the sulci pia mater
the wide, cerebrospinal fluid containing space is between the ____ mater and the pia mater and is called the _____ space. arachnoid; sub-arachnoid
the main blood vessels supplying the brain are in the ___ space subarachnoid
______ fills the ventricles and surrounds the brain and spinal cord, acting as a shock absorber, distributing nutritive, removing wastes, and providing a chemically stable enviroment cerebrospinal fluid
the cells of the capillaries in the brain are unusual in that they are _____. joined by tight junctions
capillaries in the brain are much less ____ than capillaries elsewhere in the body permeable
cerebrospinal fluid is formed in regions within the ventricles called _____ by ______. chroroid plexuses; ependymal
after the CSF is formed, it circulates from the lateral ventricles to the third and fourth ventricles, and from there to the _____ and central canal of the spinal cord. sub-arachnoid space
after circulation the CSF returns to the blood by passing through the ____, which are clusters of the arachnoid mater which project into the dural sinuses and act as one-way valves. arachnoid granulates
impaired blood circulation to the brain due to a blocked or broken vessel is known as a(n) _____, _______, or _______. cerebrovascular accident; stroke; brain attack
(TRUE/FALSE) Most of the neuronal death due to a stroke occurs several minutes or even hours after the stroke begins, allowing time for emergency treatment to have a major effect. TRUE
an abnormal build up of beta-amyloid protein fragments in the regions surrounding neurons, and of neurofibrillary tangles in the cytoplasm of pyramidal neurons and in that od neurons whose axons connect with them, are causes of neuronal death in ____ alzheimer's disease
in the elderly, drug reactions, poor circulation, or disease, all of which may be curable, can mimic the dementia caused by ____, which is not. alzheimer's disease
in huntington's disease, damage to the caudate nucleus, one of the basal nuclei, caused by an abnormal protein leads to _____, which eventually leads to death. chorea (or involuntary spastic movements)
loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra leads to tremor, muscular rigidity, slow movement and postural instability in _____. Parkinson's disease
the _____ is formed of paired strips of cells arising from the ectoderm at the margin of the neural tube neural crest
the spinal cord itself is formed from the _____, an the dorsal root ganglia are formed from the ____. neural tube; neural crest
the spinal cord extends from the ____ to the ____; below L1 it branches to form the ____. skull; L1 vertebra; cauda equina
in addition to the vertebral column, the spinal cord is protected by the ____ and _____. meninges; CSF
in the inferior regions, there is a gap between the ____ and the ____ into which anesthetics are often introduced dura mater; vertebrae
the butterfly-shaped central core of gray matter in the spinal cord can be divided into three regions. the _____ contains the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons anterior horn
the butterfly-shaped central core of gray matter in the spinal cord can be divided into three regions, the _____ contains the cell bodies of the autonomic motor neurons and is present only in the thoracic and upper lumbar (L! and L2) regions lateral horn
the butterfly-shaped central core of gray matter in the spinal cord can be divided into three regions. The _____ contains interneurons. posterior horn
the axons of the neurons from the ____ and ____ horns emerge together as the ventral roots. lateral; anterior
the ____ are formed from the cell bodies of sensory neurons whose axons branch to extend inward to the spinal cord and outward to the body. dorsal root gangila
_____ are white-matter columns consisting of the myelinated axons of neurons associated with the spinal cord funiculi
the neuronal cell bodies for the ascending pathways of the spinal cord itself are found in the _____ or _____. dorsal horn; dorsal root ganglia
neurons in the _____ have axons which extend from the receptor to the spinal cord, or in some cases all the way to the brain. dorsal root ganglia
neurons of the dorsal horn receive signals from theose in the ____. their own axons extend to reach neurons in the brain stem, diencephalon, ect. dorsal root ganglia
information regarding crude touch, temperature, pressure, and pain is carried through the ____ pathways of the somatosensory tract of the spinal cord non-specific ascending (or anterolateral to)
detailed information concerning position, vibration, or fine touch are transmitted by the _____ pathway of the somatosensory tracts of the spinal cord. this pathway is located in the _____. specific ascending (or lemniscal): posterior funiculus
messages carried in the specific and non-specific ascending pathways ultimately reach the somatosensory cortex on _____ tje sensor the side of the body opposite to (contralateral to)
impulses from the truck and lower limb regarding position and movement are carried through the ____ pathway of the somatosensory tracts of the spinal cord. this pathway is located in the _____. spinocerebellar; lateral funiculi
messages carried in the spinocerebellar pathways ultimately reach the cerebellum on ____ the sensor. the same side of the body as (ipsilateral to)
signals from the pyramidal cells in the motor cortex to the spinal cord are carried by the _____, one of the two motor tracts of the spinal cord direct system (or pyramidal system)
signals controlling automatic movements such as those needed to maintain balance are carried by the ____ system, one of the two tracts of the spinal cord. indirect (or extra-pyramidal system)
the motor tracts of the spinal cord located in the ___. lateral and anterior funiculi
damage to the ____ of the spinal cord prevents nerve impulses from reaching the muscle and causes the muscles to remain limp, a condition called ____ paralysis. anterior horn neurons; flaccid
damage to the ____ in the brain causes the muscles to contract involuntary and somewhat at random, a condition called ____ paralysis. primary moto cortex; spastic
because injuries to the anterior spinal cord are nearly always accompanied by injuries to the _____, flaccid paralysis is often accompanied by _____. posterior spinal cord; numbness
long term paralysis results in irreversible deterioration of the ___. muscle
in _____, a contrast dye is injected into one or more arteries to make them visible in X-Rays. angiograph
____ tests are used to verify that the spinal cord and brain are functioning property. reflex
in _____, multiple X-Rays, taken from many angles, are combined by computer into 3D image. CAT scans (or CT scan)
in ____, radio waves are used to produce detailed images which include soft tissues. MRI
in _____, metabolism by each tissue is measured by passing the patient through a circular scanner after he or she has been given a small amount of a radioactive chemical. PET scan
conventional diagnosis of alzheimer's disease requires two or three years, while newer techniques such as ____ may provide a rapid and unambiguous diagnosis PET scan
Drugs, radiation, infections, and malnutrition are particularly dangerous while a woman is pregnant because they can after _____. CNS development
in the elderly, blood pressure abnormalities, poor circulation, poor nutrition, prolonged inactivity and drug interactions can all induce ____. reversible (curable) senility
Created by: fugatejay8722