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Heart-study guide 1

QuestionAnswer
What are the four chambers of the heart? RA, RV, LA, LV
What are the function of the four chambers of the heart? The atria are the recieving chambers and the ventricles are the discharging chambers.
Which side of the heart carries deoxygenated blood? Right side
Which side of the heart carries oxygenated blood? Left side
Structally, what are the differences between the right and the left side of the heart and why? The right side is the pulmonary side circuit pump (carries blood to nad from the lungs), and the left side is the systemic circuit pump (carries blood to and from the body tissues).
What are the semilunar valves and what are their functions? They guard the bases of the large arteries issuing from the ventricles and prevent backflow into associated ventricles.
What are the atrialventricular vales and what is their function? It consists of two, Tricuspid valve, has three flexible cusps, and the mitral valve, resembles a two sided bishops hat. They both prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting.
What blood vessels carry oxygenated blood into and out of the heart? Pulmonary trunk (which splits into the R and L pulmonary arteries) and the ascending aorta (3 branches - brachiocephalic, left common cartoid, and subclavian arteries).
Which blood vessels carry deoxygenated blood into and out of the heart? Superior anf inferior venae cavae and the R and L pulmonary veins.
What is pulmonary circuit? Blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs.
What is systemic circuit? Blood vessels that carry functional blood supply to nad from all body tissues.
What is coronary circulation? The functional blood supply of the heart, also the shortest circulation in the body.
What is a papillary muscle? It is muscle within the heart that is connected to the chordae tendenae which holds the bicuspid and tricuspid valves closed when needed.
What is chordae tendenae? White collagen cords which anchor the cusps to the papillay muscles protruding from the ventricular walls.
What is pericardium and what is its function? It is a double-walled sac. It is there to protect the heart.
What is epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium? The epicardium is the inner most layer, the myocardium is the middle layer, and the endocardium is the outermost.
What is pericardial cavity? Between the parietal and visceral layers liea the pericardial cavity. It contains serous fluid which reduces friction.
What is foramen ovalle? Connects the two atria and allows blood entering the right heart to bypass the pulmonary circuit and the collapsed, nonfunctional fetus lungs.
What are the differences/similarities between skeletal and cardiac muscle? Like skeletal muscle, is striated, and it contracts by the sliding filament mechanism. However, in contrast to the long, cynlidrical, mutinucleate skeletal muscle fibers, cardiac cells are short, fat, branched, and interconnected.
What are SA-nodes? It has the fastes depolarization reate and sets the pace for the heart, hence the term, pacemaker.
What are NA-nodes? It is immediately above the tricuspid valve and its signal is delayed about.1s, this allos the atria to respond and complete the contraction before the ventricle contracts.
What are AV-bundles? The only electrical connection between the atria and the ventricle. They area not connected by gap junctions.
What are purkinje fibers? Long strands of barrel shaped cells with new myofibrils, they complete the pathway through the interventricular septum, penetrate into the heart apex, and then turn superiorly into the ventricle walls.
What are systole and diastole? Systole - contractionDiastole - relaxation
What is leukemia? A group of cancerous conditions including white blood cells.
What is a stroke?
What is a heart attack? prolonged coronary blockage can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack).
What is angina pectoris? It is a thoracic pain caused by a fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to the myocardium.
What are P-waves? The first and small lasts about .08 s, and results from movement of the depolrization wave from the SA node though the atria.
What are QR-comples? it results from ventricular depolrization and precedes ventricular contraction.
What are T-wave? Caused by ventricular repolarization and typically lasts.16 s, The T-wave is more spread out and slower and has a lower amplitude than the QRS-wave.
Created by: fadka5