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HSCI 131

Chapter 6 Digestive System

bilirubin orange-yellow pigment formed during destruction of erythrocytes that is taken up by liver cells to form bilirubin and eventually secreted in the feces
bolus mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed
exocrine gland that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
sphincter circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
triglycerides organic compound, a true fat, that is made of one glycerol and three fatty acids
what does elevated bilirubin in the blood produce? yellowing of the skin (jaundice). can indicate liver damage or disease
bucca cheeks
what forms the oral cavity cheeks, lips, teeth, tongue, hard and soft palates
mastication mechanically breaking down food into smaller pieces as they mix with saliva (chewing)
dentin beneath the enamel, main structure of the tooth
pulp innermost part of the tooth, contains nerves and blood vessels
gingiva pink, fleshy tissue known as gums
deglutition swallowing
papillae rough projections on the surface of the tongue that contain taste buds
4 basic taste sensations sweet, sour, salty and bitter
two structures that form the roof of the mouth hard palate (anterior portion) and soft palate (posterior portion)
pharynx throat
trachea tube in the lowest portion of the pharynx that leads to the lungs
esophagus tube in the lowest portion of the pharynx that leads to the stomach
epiglottis small flap of cartilage that folds back to cover the trachea during swallowing, forcing food to enter the esophagus
or/o mouth
oral pertaining to the mouth
stomat/o mouth
stomatitis inflammation of the mouth
gloss/o tongue
glossectomy removal of all or part of the tongue
lingu/o tongue
lingual pertaining to the tongue
bucc/o cheek
buccal pertaining to the cheek
cheil/o lip
cheiloplasty surgical repair of a defective lip
labi/o lip
labial pertaining to the lips
dent/o teeth
dentist specialist who treats disorders of teeth
odont/o teeth
gingiv/o gums
sial/o saliva, salivary glands
sialolith calculus formed in a salivary gland or duct
esophag/o esophagus
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
gastr/o stomach
pylor/o pylorus (sphincter of the stomach)
duoden/o duodenum (first part of small intestine)
duodenoscopy visual examination of the duodenum
enter/o intestine
enteropathy disease of the intestine
jejun/o jejunum (second part of small intestine)
jejunorrhaphy suture of the jejunum
ile/o ileum (third part of small intestine)
ileostomy creation of an opening between the ileum and the abdominal wall
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
col/o colon
colon/o colon
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
sigmoidotomy incision of the sigmoid colon
rect/o rectum
rectocele herniation or protrusion of the rectum
proct/o anus, rectum
an/o anus
perianal pertaining to the area around the anus
hepat/o liver
pancreat/o pancreas
pancreatolysis destruction of the pancreas
cholangi/o bile vessel
chol/e bile, gall
cholelith gallstone
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o bile duct
choledochoplasty surgical repair of the bile duct
-emesis vomit
hyperemesis excessive vomiting
-iasis abnormal condition
cholelithiasis abnormal condition of gallstones
-orexia appetite
-pepsia digestion
dyspepsia difficult or painful digestion
-phagia swallowing, eating
aerophagia swallowing air
-prandial meal
postprandial after a meal
steatorrhea discharge of fat in fecal matter
dia- through, across
peri- around
sub- under, below
first part of the small intestine duodenum
what prevents the stomach contents from regurgitating back into the esophagus lower esophageal (Cardiac) sphincter
fundus upper portion of the stomach
pylorus funnel shaped terminal portion of the stomach where most digestion takes place
rugae macroscopic longitudinal folds that gradually unfold as the stomach fills
chyme stomach secretions that are turn semiliquid from stomach churning
pyloric sphincter where chyme leaves the stomach to enter the duodenum. regulates the speed and movement of chyme into the small
peristalsis coordinated, rhythmic muscle contractions that propel food through the GI tract
duodenum uppermost segment of small intestine (10 inches long)
jejunum middle segment of small intestine, approx 8 feet long
ileum lowermost portion of small intestine, approx 12 feet long
villi microscopic, fingerlike projections that absorb nutrients in chyme
ileocecal valve info sphincter muscle at the end of the terminal end of the small intestine that allows undigested or unabsorbed material from the small intestine to pass into the large intestine and eventually be excreted from the body
cecum info first 2 or 3 inches of the large intestine, small pouch that hangs inferior to the ileocecal valve
appendix info wormlike structure projecting downward from the cecum, no known function, but its twisted structure is an ideal location for enteric bacteria to accumulate and multiply
liver info largest glandular organ in the body, beneath diaphragm, produces bile, aids in digestion of fat, removes glucose from blood, stores vitamins, releases bilirubin
pancreas info elongated flat organ, posterior and inferior to stomach, performs endocrine (secretes insulin into blood) and exocrine (digestive enzymes into duodenum) functions
gallbladder info saclike structure, storage area for bile
asymptomatic showing no symptoms
ulcer circumscribed open sore on the skin or mucous membranes of the body
perforation hole
peritonitis inflammation of the peritonium
ulcerative colitis chronic inflammatory disease of the colon
stoma surgical creation of an opening
hernia protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained
inguinal hernia protrusion of abdominal folds in groin meeting the thighs
strangulated hernia when blood supply to hernia is cutoff, can lead to necrosis with gangrene
umbilical hernia protrusion of part of the intestine at the navel
congenital hernia hernia in newborns
hernioplasty surgical repair of hernia
two types of hernias in diaphragm diaphragmatic or hiatal hernia
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disorder, back flow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
mechanical obstruction obstruction in intestines when intestinal contents are prevented from moving forward due to an obstacle or barrier blocking the lumen
nonmechanical obstruction intestinal obstruction when peristalsis is impaired and the intestinal contents cannot be propelled through the bowel
volvolus intestinal twisting
intussusceptions intestinal "telescoping" where part of the intestine slips into another part just beneath it
hemorrhoids enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal (internal or external)
hemorrhoidectomy surgical removal of hemorrhoid
hepatitis A infectious hepatitis
hepatitis B serum hepatitis
common causes of hep A ingestion of contaminated food, water or milk
parenteral transmission routes other than the mouth (ex: blood transfusions and sexual contact)
jaundice yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes
diverticulosis condition where small, blister like pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine and may balloon though the intestinal wall
diverticula small, blisterlike pockets
obstipation extreme constipation
gastric adenocarcinoma cancerous glandular tumor
anorexia lack or loss of appetite, results of inability to eat
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, most commonly caused by chronic liver disease
borborygmus rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
cachexia physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass and is commonly associated with AIDS and cancer
cholelithiasis presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
cirrhosis scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
colic spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ, especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
Crohn disease form of inflammatory bowel disease, usually of the ileum but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract
dysentery inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites and results in bloody diarrhea
dysphagia inability or difficulty in swallowing
eructation producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sounds, burping
fecalith fecal concretion
flatus gas in the GI tract, expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
halitosis foul-smelling breath
hematemesis vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
irritable bowel syndrome symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function for which no organic cause can be determined
malabsorption syndrome symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
melena passage of dark colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
obesity excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds body's skeletal and physical standards
morbid obesity BMI of 40 or greater, which is about 100 pounds or more over ideal body weight
oral leukoplakia formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation
peristalsis progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body
pyloric stenosis stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
regurgitation backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
nasogastric intubation insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relive gastric dissension by removing gas, food, or gastric secretions; instill medication, food or fluids
anastomosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
ileorectal anastomosis surgical connection of the ileum and rectum
intestinal anastomosis surgical connection of two portions of the intestines
bariatric surgery group of procedures that treat morbid obesity
vertical banded gastroplasty bariatric surgery that involves vertical stapling of the upper stomach near the esophagus to reduce it to a small pouch and insertion of a band that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a full feeling
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass bariatric surgery that involves stapling the stomach to decrease its size and then shortening the jejunum and connecting it to the small stomach pouch, decreases pathway of food though the intestine, thus reducing absorption of calories and fats
colostomy creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
lithotripsy procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments surgically or with shock waves
polypectomy excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus, which is used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
gastrointestinal endoscopy visual examination of the GI tract
hepatitis panel panel of blood tests to identify hep A, B or C by testing serum using antibiotics to each of these antigens
liver function tests group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions commonly associated with he biliary tract
serum bilirubin measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
stool culture test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces that are causing GI infection
stool guaiac test that applies a substance called a guaiac to a stool sample to detect the presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces
computed tomography imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
lower GI series radiographic images of the rectum and colon following administration of barium into the rectum (aka barium enema)
oral cholecystography radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contract material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography MRI is used to visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts and gallbladder in a noninvasive manner
sialography radiologic examination of the salivary glands and the ducts
ultrasonography high frequency sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as echoes to produce an image on a monitor
abdominal ultrasound provides visual of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and bladder
endoscopic ultrasonography combines endoscopy and ultrasound to examine and obtain images of the digestive tract and the surrounding tissue and organs
upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) radiographic images of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine following oral administration of barium
Created by: arehberg
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