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Chabner Chpt13

Pronunciation of Terms

Albumin Protein found in blood.
Anisocytosis Inequality in the size of red blood cells.
Antibody Protein made by white blood cells in response to foreign substances (antigens) in the blood.
Anticoagulant Substance that prevents blood clotting.
Antigen Foreign agent that stimulates the production of an antibody.
Basophil White blood cell (leukocyte) containing dark granules that stain with a basic dye.
Bilirubin Orange-yellow pigment found in bile. It is released from the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die.
Coagulation Process of blood clotting.
Coagulopathy Disease of blood clotting.
Colony-stimulating factor Protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes).
Cytology Study of cells.
Differentiation Specialization of cells from immature to mature forms.
Electrophoresis Technique used to separate serum proteins by electrical charge.
Eosinophil White blood cell whose granules stain intensely with an acidic eosin (reddish) dye; elevated in allergic reactions.
Eosinophilia Increase in numbers of eosinophils in the bloodstream.
Erythroblast Immature, developing red blood cell.
Erythrocytopenia Deficiency of red blood cells.
Erythropoiesis Formation of red blood cells.
Erythropoietin Substance (hormone) produced by the kidney to stimulate bone marrow to produce erythrocytes.
Fibrin Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot.
Fibrinogen Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process.
Globulins Major blood proteins; immunoglobulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulins are examples.
Granulocyte White blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules; neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil.
Granulocytopenia Deficiency of granulocytes.
Hematopoiesis Formation of blood cells.
Hemoglobin Blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells.
Hemoglobinopathy Disease or defect of hemoglobin production. Sickle cell anemia is an example.
Hemolysis Destruction or breakdown of blood; specifically red blood cells.
Hemostasis Stoppage of bleeding or circulation of blood.
Heparin Anticoagulant found in blood and tissues.
Hypochromic Pertaining to deficiency in color; decrease in hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Immune system Response of the immune system to foreign invasion.
Immunoglobulin Antibody-containing protein in the blood; IgA, IgG, IgM,
Leukapheresis Mechanical separation of white blood cells from the rest of the blood.
Leukocyte White blood cell.
Leukocytopenia Deficiency of white blood cells.
Lymphocyte White blood cell with a single nucleus (mononuclear); capable of producing antibodies.
Macrocytosis Presence of large red blood cells in the blood.
Macrophage Large phagocytic cell migrating from the blood into tissues.
Megakaryocyte Large, giant cell with a big nucleus; platelet precursor found in the bone marrow.
Microcytosis Increased numbers of smaller than normal red blood cells.
Monoblast Immature monocyte.
Monocyte White blood cell (agranulocyte) with one large nucleus; enter tissues as macrophages.
Mononuclear Pertaining to a white blood cell with a single, round nucleus; monocyte or lymphocyte.
Morphology Study of the shape and form of cells, particularly red blood cells.
Myeloblast Immature granulocytic while blood cell; a cell normally only found in the bone marrow.
Myeloid Derived from bone marrow.
Myelogenous Pertaining to cells produced in the bone marrow.
Myelopoiesis Formation and development of bone marrow or cells that originate from it.
Neutropenia Deficiency of neutrophils.
Neutrophil White blood cell with dark granules that stain with a neutral dye; phagocyte formed in the bone marrow and the body’s first line of defense against disease.
Neutrophilia Increased numbers of neutrophils.
Pancytopenia Deficiency of all (blood) cells.
Phagocyte Cell that engulfs another cell or foreign organism and destroys it.
Plasma Liquid portion of blood containing proteins, water, salts, nutrients, hormones and vitamins.
Plasmapheresis Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge.
Platelet Clotting cell or thrombocyte.
Plateletpheresis Separation of platelets from the rest of the blood.
Poikilocytosis Variation in the shape of red blood cells.
Polymorphonuclear Pertaining to a multi-lobed nucleus (in granulocytic white blood cells).
Prothrombin Plasma protein converted to thrombin in the clotting process.
Reticulocyte Immature erythrocyte with a network of strands (reticulum).
Rh factor Antigen (protein) on red blood cells of Rh positive individuals.
Serum Plasma minus clotting proteins (prothrombin and fibrinogen) and clotting cells.
Sideropenia Deficiency of iron in the blood.
Spherocytosis Increase in numbers of sphere-shaped red blood cells, as in a type of anemia (hemolytic anemia).
Stem cell Unspecialized cell that gives rise to all forms of specialized cells in the body. Hematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow and lead to the development of all types of blood cells.
Thrombin Enzyme necessary for blood clotting (converts fibrinogen to fibrin in the clotting process).
Thrombocyte Platelet; clotting cell.
Thrombocytopenia Deficiency of clotting cells.
Thrombolytic therapy Treatment with drugs to break down clots that may abnormally form in blood vessels.
Created by: HSchantz