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Chapter 14 ID's

by brandon jacobs

Prester John king who ruled a Christian nation in the Muslim world
The Travels of John Mandeville a almost-definitely-fictitious work detailing the travels of Sir John Mandeville
Marco Polo an Italian merchant traveler whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde. He traveled to Asia.
"God, Glory, and Gold" motives for overseas exploration
portolani navigational maps based on compass directions and estimated distances
Ptolemy's Geography a gazeteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire
lateen sails and square rigs allows ships to be mobile against wind
compass and astrolabe navigational innovations
Prince Henry the Navigator administrator in Portuguese Empire who spearheaded the age of exploration
Gold Coast British colony in present-day Ghana
Bartholomeu Dias portuguese explorer who sailed around the tip of Africa
Vasco da Gama and Calicut fist Europeans to reach India by sea
Alfonso de Albuquerque established trade with Asian nations for spices
Malacca location of an early Malay sultanate which the portuguese conquered in the 16th century
Spice Islands the Maluku Islands in present-day Indonesia, known for their spices
Christopher Columbus an Italian explorer who sailed to "India" for the Portuguese
John Cabot typically regarded as the first explorer to reach the Americas since the vikings
Vasco Núñez de Balboa a spanish explorer who is the first European to reach the Pacific from the Americas
Ferdinand Magellan a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth
Treaty of Tordesillas an agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th-century voyagers
Hernán Cortés and Moctezuma Spanish explorer and Aztec ruler, Cortez conquered Moctezuma's lands
the Aztecs and Tenochtitlan Indigenous Americans who lived in present-day central Mexico, their capital was Tenochtitlan
the Inca and Pachakuti Indigenous Americans from modern-day Peru, their capital was Pachakuti
Fransisco Pizarro Spanish explorer who conquered the Incan empire
encomienda a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America conferring the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area.
audiencias an appellate court in Spain and its empire
Boers and Capetown descendants of Dutch speaking settlers that established Capetown in South Africa
slave trade the colonial exploitation of African Americans for free labor in the New World
"sugar factories" basically sugar plantations, the reason caribbean colonies were profitable
Dutch East India Company A Dutch trading company founded in 1602 to protect Dutch trading interests in the Indian Ocean.
Batavia Dutch East India company headquarters, today called Jakarta
Mughal Empire Muslim empire in modern-day India
British East India Company A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Robert Clive a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal
"Black Hole of Calcutta" prison in Fort William to hold British POWs after the fort was taken, held as many as 150 prisoners
Ming and Qing Dynasties final two Chinese dynasties
Lord Macartney and Emperor Qianlong British diplomat to China and the emperor who rejected British requests
Tokugawa shoguns initiated the longest-lasting and most powerful of Japanese Shogunates
Nagasaki an island in modern-day Japan where a Dutch colony existed
the New Netherlands Dutch claim to mid-Atlantic north america
Navigation Acts Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England.
Samuel de Champlain Cartographer, explorer, governor of New France
the asiento right granted to the British following the War of the Spanish Succession, which allowed them to sell African slaves in the Spanish colonies of the New World
inflation a general and progressive increase in prices in England during the early 16th and 17th centuries
joint stock trading companies individuals buy shares in a company and earn interest on their shares as the company grows more profitable
House of Fugger a German banker family who monopolized silver, copper, and mercury mines
mercantilism an economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
mestizos and mulattoes mixed race peoples of European and Latin American and African descent respectively
the Columbian Exchange Global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas
Gerardus Mercator A Flemish cartographer who was one of the first to produce a world map that showed, with relative accuracy, the general outline of the continents.
Created by: brandonjacobs