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cerebral cortex

WVSOM -- Medical Neuroanatomy

What are the two cortical layers of the cerebral cortex? neocortex and archicortex
How many layers are in the neocortex? 6
What is in layer 1 of the neocortex? GABAergic cells but no pyramidal cell bodies
What is in layer 2/3 of the neocortex? locally and intracortically projecting pyramidal neurons. usually small pyraidal neurons
What is in layer 4 of the neocortex? contains spiny stellate cells
What is in layer 5-6 of the neocortex contains locally and extracortially projecting pyramidal neurons. usually large pyramidal neurons
What is in the archicortex? hippocampus, enthorhinal cortex
what is the percentage of excitatory neurons? 75% glutamate neurotransmitter
What is the excitatory neurotransmitters? glutamate
What are pyramidal cells? pyramid shaped soma. single apical dendrite attached to the pyramid apex and goes upward to pial surface. Several basal dendrites are attached to the pyramid's base. particpate in local neuronal circuits and long range connections.
What do the projection neurons do? output element of teh neocortex
Where are all neurons projectiong out of the cortex found? Layers V and VI
Where aer callosal and ipsilateral corticocortical neurons found? layers II and III
What are stellate cells? minority of excitatory cells. make up most of layer IV. Pyramidal cells which have lost their apical dendrite. Local circuit neuron
What is the inhibitory interneuron? GABA
What shape are inhibitory cells? variety but NEVER pyramidal. Always non-spiny
Where do inhibitory interneurons project? do nto project beyond the immediate region of teh neuron.
What is the bordman's number for the primayr visual area of the occipital lobe? 17
What is the brodman number for the associatiave visual center of occipital lobe? 18,19
What is the primary auditory brodman number in the temporal lobe? 40,41,42
What is the brodman number for the frontal lobe for primary motor? 4
What is the brodman number for associational or pre-motor area of the frontal lobe 6
What is the brodman number for the frontal eye in the frontal lobe? 8
What is the brodman number for broka's area in the frontal lobe? 44,45
What is function of the superior temporal gyrus? language comprehension
What is the functino of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus motor areas for language
What is plasticity? brain can change and a lot more to certain areas of sensory or motor if needed but decreases with age
What are the 3 kinds of fibers in the white matter tracts of the telenchephalon? association fibers, commissural fibers and projection fibers
What do association fibers do? connect coritcal sites within the same hemisphere.
What are u fibers/ short assoication fibers that link nearby regions of the cortex.
What are commissural fibers? connect one cerebral hemispher to the other.
Where do must commissural fibers run? corpus collosum
What are projection fibers? pass from the cerebral cortex to subcortical structures such as teh thalamus, basal ganglia, brain stem, spinal cord, etc.
What is the superior longitudinal fasiculus? association fiber that connects the frontal and occipital lobes
What is the inferior longitudinal fasiculus? association fiber that connects the occipital lobes with teh temporal lobes
Waht is the uncinate fasciulus? association fibers that connects the inferior frontal lobe with teh temporal lobe
What is the cingulum? association fiber that connects teh cingulated gyrus with the archicortex
What does teh anterior commissure do? commissural fibers that connect the temporal lobes
What does the corpus collosum do? commissural fibers that connects corresponding regions of neocortex for all but the temporal lobes
How is the corpus collosum divided? rostrum, genu, body and splenium
What does the splenium contain? only visual fibers
Created by: tjamrose