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STAAR Review

Representative Government system of government in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them
House of Burgesses first representative assembly in the new world
Three Branches of Government Legistlative, Executive, Judicial
Magna Carta first document sighned in 1215 them limited power of the ruler and gave trial by jury
English Bill of Rights protected rights of English citizens, became basis for U.S. Bill of Rights
Mayflower Compact document signed by pilgrims in 1620 that promised to agree on laws and work together to make Plymouth succeed
Jamestown fist successful English colony in the new world, founded in 1607
Plymouth colony founded by the pilgrims in 1620
Columbus discovered the Americas in 1492 for the Queen of Spain
Mercantilism economic theory that a country’s power is based off of its wealth and that a country should sell more than buy
Free Enterprise freedom of private businesses to compete for profit with minimal regulation
Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut first written constitution in the Americas
Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania
Southern Colonies North, South Carolina, Georgia, Maryland
New England Colonies New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island
Puritans those who sought to reform the English church
Land claimed by a country in a different area of the world. Settlers are sent to this area to maintain claim. Colony
Settlement of the colony Colonization
Belief that a colony exists to benefit the mother country financially; maintaining wealth by controlling trade. Mercantilism
Business compete for consumers who are free to decide where to purchase goods. The government has little control. Free Enterprise
Trade route that existed between the 13 colonies, Africa, and the West Indies. They traded rum, sugar, and slaves. Triangular Trade
Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America. Indentured Servant
African American who is purchased to work for life on a plantation Slave
Buying and selling of humans for forced labor Slave Trade
Large farms that grew cash crops. The land was farmed by slaves who lived on the land. Plantation System
Crops grown to sell. Cash Crops
Production of goods in a factory setting. Industry
Tax placed on goods coming into a country. Tariff
A tariff placed on foreign goods to protect domestic industry Protective Tariff
System of government in which power is held by a queen or king. Monarchy
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire New England Colonies
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware Middle Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia Southern Colonies
Issues relating to government and a citizens' relationship with government Political Reasons
Issues relating to how people make money for their families; the production of gods and services Economic Reasons
Issues relating to society including people, language, religion, education, art, etc. Social Reasons
Person who wanted to separate from the Church of England. Pilgrim
Person who wanted to "purify" or reform the Church of England Puritan
Area that is similar in climate, geographic features, and economies Region
Complaint Grievance
To change Amend
A change in the Constitution Amendment
To officially accept Ratify
Rights that all people possess; rights the government cannot deny. Unalienable Rights
Putting government duty ahead of personal duties. Civic Virtue
Responsibilities of citizenship includes voting and paying taxes. Civic Duty
Rebelling against government not meeting your civic duties. Civic Disobedience
To do away with, bring something to an end. Abolish
Person who wanted to end slavery. Abolitionist
Men who helped shape the U.S. through ideas, documents, and leadership. Founding Fathers
Group of people with similar ideas about government. Political Party
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional. Judicial Review
To declare legally void; invalidate. Nullify
View that the states should hold more power than the Federal Government. States' Rights
The belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean. Manifest Destiny
Moving from one country to another Immigration
New ways of doing things based on new discoveries Innovation
To change Reform
To formally surrender; give up Cede
To withdraw Secede
Group of states formally united under one government Union
Everyone, regardless of gender, race, or ethnicity, has equal rights. Equality
To be added to a larger entity. Annex
To take the legal steps and become a citizen. Naturalized Citizen
Making the section more important than the group Sectionalism
What was the 1st successful English settlement in North America? Jamestown
What year was Jamestown founded? 1607
What was the significance of the Virginia House of Burgesses? First representative assembly in North America
What was the name of the laws established for the good of the colony of Plymouth? Mayflower Compact
What was the name of the intellectual movement that swept through the colonies in the 1700's? Enlightenment
What was the name of the religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1700's? The Great Awakening
Which act forbid colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains? Proclamation of 1763
Which act forced colonists to house and feed British soldiers? Quartering Act
What was the name of the event where British soldiers fired into a crowd of civilians and killed five people? Boston Massacre
What was event in which colonists dumped 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor? Boston Tea Party
What were the names of the acts passed by Britain intended to punish the colonists? Coercive(Intolerable) Acts
What was the significance of "the shot heard 'round the world"? It marked the start of the American Revolution
What is the significance of 1776? America declared its independence from Great Britain
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
List the three inalienable rights mentioned in the Declaration of Independence? Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
Who wrote "These are the times that try men's souls" in The Crisis? Thomas Paine
What were the two pamphlets that Thomas Paine wrote? "Common Sense" and "The Crisis"
Who was the King of England during the American Revolution? King George III
Who was the Commander of the Continental Army? George Washington
What was the signficance of the Battle of Saratoga? It was the "turning point" of the American Revolution because the French began to help us out.
What battle marked the end of the American Revolution? Battle of Yorktown
What was the name of the agreement in which Great Britain recognized America's independence? Treaty of Paris (1783)
What was the significance of 1787? It was when the U.S. Constitution was written in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
What was the first form of national government in the U.S.? Articles of Confederation
What was the biggest weakness of the Articles of Confederation? It did not have the power to tax.
Which law described the process of how territories would be incorporated as states? Northwest Ordinance
Which event exposed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? Shay's Rebellion
Who was known as the "Father of the Constitution? James Madison
What was the name of the compromise on legislative representation? The Great Compromise
What is the significance of the Bill of Rights? They protect the basic rights of the people.
Which principle explains that there are powers shared between the federal government and state governments Federalism
Which principle describes a government in which the people rule? Popular Sovereignty
Which principle divides the government into three different branches? Separation of Powers
Which principle makes it so that no one branch has more power than the other two? Checks and Balances
Who was the first President of the United States? George Washington
What is the name of the group of advisors chosen by the president? The Cabinet
What was the name of the protest by Pennsylvania farmers? Whiskey Rebellion
Who was the second President of the United States? John Adams
What was the name of the incident where France asked the U.S. for a bribe? The X,Y,Z Affair
What was the law that was aimed at immigrants coming into the United States? Alien and Sedition Acts
What is the significance of 1803? Louisiana Purchase (It doubled the size of the U.S.)
What famous Supreme Court case established the principle of Judicial Review? Marbury v. Madison
What were the three Causes of the War of 1812? 1. Impressment of U.S. Sailors 2. Interference of U.S. Shipping 3. Encouraging Native American Resistance
Who wrote the "Star Spangled Banner"? Francis Scott Key
What was the name of the Cherokee journey to Indian Territory in present day Oklahoma? "Trail of Tears"
Which U.S. President strongly supported Indian relocation? Andrew Jackson
Who invented the cotton gin? Eli Whitney
Who invented the steamboat? Robert Fulton
Who invented the telegraph? Samuel F.B. Morse
Who invented the steel plow? John Deere
What was the name of the famous Supreme Court case that gave one steamboat company a monopoly? Gibbons v. Ogden
What is the name of the philosophy that it was America's right to expand all the way to the Pacific Ocean and that western expansion was inevitable? Manifest Destiny
What was a direct result of the California Gold Rush? California became a state.
What was the name of the treaty that ended the Mexican War? Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
What was the name of the territorial acquisition obtained as a result of the Mexican War? Mexican Cession
What event marked the start of the Women's Rights Movement? Seneca Falls Convention
Who wrote "The Liberator"? William Lloyd Garrison
Who wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"? Harriett Beecher Stowe
Which social reformer fought for better treatment of the mentally ill? Dorothea Dix
Which social reformer fought for increased educational opportunities for students and better training and higher salaries for teachers? Horace Mann
Which social reformer and women's rights activist was a former slave and excellent speaker? Sojourner Truth
Which social reformer was a conductor on the Underground Railroad? Harriet Tubman
What do you call a peaceful form of protest? Civil Disobedience
What do you call when the voters of a territory are allowed to determine the issue of slavery? Popular Sovereignty
What was the name of the famous Supreme Court Case in which a Missouri slave sued for his freedom? Dred Scott v. Sanford
Who won the Election of 1860? Abraham Lincoln
What was the direct result of the Election of 1860? South Carolina seceded from the Union.
Which event marked the start of the Civil War? Attack on Ft. Sumter
Who was President of the U.S. during the Civil War? Abraham Lincoln
What battle was the "bloodiest day" in all of American military history? Battle of Antietam
What battle was known as the "turning point" of the Civil War? Battle of Gettysburg
What battle gave the Union control of the entire Mississippi River, thus dividing the Confederacy? Siege of Vicksburg
Where did General Lee surrender to General Grant? Appomattox Court House, VA
What amendment abolished slavery? 13th Amendment
Define Manifest Destiny. The belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
What drew people to the west? The west had vast stretches of land, offering a golden chance to make money.
Who were the Mormons and why did they go west? The Mormons were members of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. They wanted to go west so that they could follow their faith in peace.
Why did Americans want to move to Texas? The land was rich and desirable, forests in the east, and had rivers. Some Americans wanted to start a new life, others were escaping the law, and some wanted a chance to be rich.
How did the California Gold Rush get started and what was the impact? When James Marshall found gold while building a sawmill. The impact resulted in large amounts of people rushing to California and creating mining camps. Few people became rich from the gold.
What role did George Washington play in the American Revolution? He was the general of the continental army.
What was the significance of the Battle of Saratoga? It caused european nations to think that the Americans might when their war on independence.
Who was Marquis de Lafayette? He was a French nobleman who volunteered to serve in Washington’s army at 19
Which countries joined in the fight? France and Spain
Who was John Paul Jones? He was an officer who won the most famous sea battle.
What happened in the Battle of Yorktown? American and French bombarded Yorktown.
What was "The American Crisis"? They were a series of pamphlets that encouraged soldiers to keep fighting.
Who was The American Crisis' author? The author was Thomas Payne
How does "The American Crisis" relate to the Freedom of Speech? Thomas was nearly sent to jail for stirring up rebellion due to his words.
Define Free Enterprise. Americans developing their own manufacturing.
Wrote letters to her husband during the American Revolution Abigail Adams
Delegate of the 2nd Continental Congress and Second President of the U.S. John Adams
African-American who fought with the Patriots during the American Revolution Wentworth Cheswell
Leader of the Sons of Liberty Samuel Adams
Revolutionary writer and poet Mercy Otis Warren
African-American who spied for the Continental Army James Armistead
Early American Inventor, Statesman and Member of the 2nd Continental Congress Benjamin Franklin
Spanish governor of Louisiana who raided British forts along the Gulf of Mexico Bernardo de Galvez
A dockworker who was shot and killed at the Boston Massacre; first casualty of the American Revolution Crispus Attucks
King of England during the American Revolution King George III
An wealthy American who helped the Patriot cause by financing (helping to pay for) the American Revolution Haym Saloman
Delegate from Virginia; famous for his "Give me liberty or give me death!" speech Patrick Henry
Author of the Declaration of Independence and Third President of the U.S. Thomas Jefferson
A French officer who served directly under George Washington during the American Revolution Marquis de Lafayette
Author of "Common Sense" and "The Crisis" Thomas Paine
Commander of the Continental Army and First President of the U.S. George Washington
President during the War of 1812 James Madison
President who warned European nations to stay out of the Americas (Monroe Doctrine) James Monroe
Seventh President of the U.S.; came up with the Spoils System; removed Cherokee Indians off of their land in Georgia Andrew Jackson
6th President of the U.S. and longtime member of the House of Representatives John Quincy Adams
Congressman from South Carolina who came up with the Doctrine of Nullification John C. Calhoun
Senator from Kentucky and known as the "Great Compromiser" Henry Clay
Congressman from Massachusetts and strong supporter of the Constitution Daniel Webster
President of the Confederacy Jefferson Davis
Union General during the Civil War Ulysses S. Grant
Confederate General from Virginia Robert E. Lee
President of the U.S. during the Civil War Abraham Lincoln
African-American soldier who received the Medal of Honor for his efforts during the Civil War William Carney
Union Navy officer who received the Medal of Honor during the Civil War Philip Bazaar
First African-American who served as a member of Congress (a Republican from Mississippi) Hiram Rhodes Revels
Federalist from New York; came up with a financial plan to get America out of debt Alexander Hamilton
Anti-Federalist who "smelled a rat tending towards monarchy" Patrick Henry
Known as the "Father of the Constitution" James Madison
Anti-Federalist from Virginia George Mason
Founder of Connecticut Thomas Hooker
An Enlightenment thinker who came up with the idea of Separation of Powers Charles de Montesquieu
An English philosopher who came up with the idea of "Life, liberty and property"; influenced Jefferson in the writing of the Declaration of Independence John Locke
An English judge who wrote the "Commentaries on the Laws of England" William Blackstone
A Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania William Penn
Advocate of a peaceful form of protest called "Civil Disobedience" Henry David Thoreau
Black Abolitionist Leader and Excellent Speaker Frederick Douglass
Naval officer from the American Revolution; quoted as saying, "I have not yet begun to fight!" John Paul Jones
Confederate General from Virginia; accidentally shot by one of his own men Stonewall Jackson
Women's Rights activist; fought for women's suffrage Susan B. Anthony
Women's Rights activist; helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention Elizabeth Cady Stanton
American artist who focused on different birds of America John James Audubon
What year was Jamestown founded? 1607
What year was the signing of the Mayflower Compact? 1620
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
What year was the Declaration of Independence signed? 1776
What year was the Louisiana Territory purchased? 1803
How long was the civil war? 1861- 1865 4 years
Why was the Magna Carta written? It was written to protect the rights of citizens. 1215 <- the year it was written
What was the Proclamation of 1763 for? It prevented colonies from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains.
What is the Sugar Act about? It was tax placed on sugar and other products shipped to the colonies.
What is the Stamp Act about? All paper documents had to carry a tax stamp
Who was the leader of the Sons of Liberty? Samuel Adams
What was the Boston Massacre about? English soldiers fired on colonists they killed 5 people.
What was the Boston Tea Party about? The colonists boarded the ships and destroyed British tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor
What is the Intolerable Act about? They punished Boston for the Tea Party by closing the Boston Harbor.
What was the battle of Lexington and Concord? It was the first battles of the civil war
What was the battle of Saratoga? It was the turning point of the war; the French begin to support the colonies in their fight for independence.
What is Valley Forge? It was Washington's winter camp
What was the battle of Yorktown? It was the last battle of the American Revolution
What was the Treaty of Paris? It ended the American Revolution
What is Unalienable Rights? Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
What is the Northwest Ordinance? (1787) It decided how new territory was settles and application for statehood.
What was the Constitutional Convention for? (1787) It created a new constitution to correct the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
What was the Great Compromise about? It combined the New Jersey and Virginia Plans to create a Congress
I was the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. I issued the Proclamation of Neutrality. I gave the U.S. 3 warnings in my farewell address. George Washington
American Red Cross American nurse organized relief for the wounded Clara Barton
Issued the Indian Removal Act, Spoils System, and Nullification Crisis Andrew Jackson
James Madison 4th US President
William Penn Founded colony of Pennsylvania for Quakers
Thomas Hooker Wrote Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Roger Williams Founded Rhode Island, favored separation of church and state
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut First written constitution in the colonies
English Bill of Rights Used as a model for U.S. Bill of Rights
First Great Awakening Time of increased interest in religion and toleration
Intolerable Acts Punished Boston colonists for Boston Tea Party
Samuel Adams Started Sons of Liberty to protest taxes
Crispus Attucks African American killed at the Boston Massacre
Anne Hutchinson Separation of Church and State
John Locke Influenced Jefferson & the Declaration of Independence
Montesquieu Wrote about separation of powers, education is important
1607 Jamestown
1620 Pilgrims arrive and the Mayflower Compact
mercantilism Economic system that led to regulations on colonial trade
Wentworth Cheswell African American patriot like Paul Revere, fought at Saratoga in the American Revolution
Thomas Paine Author of "Common Sense" a pamphlet to convince people to declare independence
Mercy Otis Warren Wrote articles to support Patriot cause during the American Revolution
William Blackstone Believed in religious toleration and self defense (2nd amendment)
Mayflower Compact Agreement for self-government among Pilgrims
House of Burgesses First representative assembly in the colonies
Proclamation of 1763 Limited westward expansion across the Appalachian Mountains
No Taxation without Representation Colonists protest paying taxes because they aren't allowed to vote
Boston Tea Party Colonists dump tea in Boston Harbor to protest tax. An example of Civil Disobedience
Abigail Adams Wife of John Adams; promoted women's rights; "Remember the ladies"
John Adams Defended British soldiers in Boston Massacre;2nd President; XYZ Affair, Alien and Sedition Acts
James Armistead African-American spy for the Continental Army
Benjamin Franklin Diplomat in France; helped write Declaration of Independence; negotiated Treaty of Paris
Bernardo de Galvez Spanish soldier who defended American ships at New Orleans
King George III Leader of England during the Revolutionary Era
Haym Salomon Jewish immigrant who convinced German soldiers to leave British Army
Patrick Henry Patriot from Virginia who said "Give me liberty or give me death!"
Thomas Jefferson Wrote Declaration of Independence; 3rd President; made Louisiana Purchase, Embargo Act
Marquis de Lafayette French officer who helped train Washington's army
George Washington Commander of Continental Army; 1st President
Lexington and Concord, MA Shot Heard Round the World; 1st battles of the American Revolution
Saratoga, NY American Victory was a turning point because France and Spain agreed to help by sending money and supplies
Yorktown, VA Last battle of the American Revolution; British surrendered after their army was surrounded
Anti-Federalists Mason & Henry; against ratification; supported Bill of Rights & states' rights
Articles of Confederation First government of U.S. in 1776; it was too weak to control the states
Bill of Rights First 10 Amendments added to the Constitution; guarantees individual rights
Republicanism Elected representatives make and enforce laws
Popular Sovereignty The power to run the government comes from the people through voting
Limited Government Power is limited to that allowed by the Constitution
Federalism Distribution of power between state and federal governments
Separation of Powers Power is divided into 3 branches: executive, legislative, judicial
Checks & Balances Each branch can limit the power of the other two
Great Compromise Created bicameral legislature: House of Representatives based on population and Senate with equal representation
3/5 Compromise Settled issue of how to count slaves toward population for representation and taxation (three of every five)
Federalists Madison & Hamilton; supported ratification and a strong central government
1803 Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the U.S.
War of 1812 U.S. vs. British: fought to end British interference in shipping and impressment of sailors
Alexander Hamilton Federalist; started the National Bank
Civic Virtue Putting service to country above self-interests
Embargo Act of 1807 Jefferson stopped all trade with other countries
Alien & Sedition Act John Adams imprisons those who criticize the government
John Marshall Chief justice of the Supreme Court
Marbury v. Madison Landmark court case=judicial review
Washington's Farewell Address advises U.S. to stay neutral
XYZ Affair John Adams avoids war with France
Monroe Doctrine 5th President tells Europe to stay out of Western Hemisphere
Democratic-Republicans favored strict interpretation of Constitution and states' rights
Northwest Ordinance Established procedure for adding new states (60,000 people)
McCulloch v. Maryland Congress has implied powers (i.e. elastic clause)
Gibbons v. Ogden Congress can regulate interstate trade
Era of Good Feelings Time of nationalism and unity during Monroe's Presidency
Indian Removal Act Law that removed Cherokee and other tribes ot land in Oklahoma; Trail of Tears 1830
Andrew Jackson Hero of War of 1812; president who was "common man"
Nullification Crisis South Carolina threatened to secede over high tariffs in 1832
John C. Calhoun Favored states' rights to determine tariffs and expand slavery
Sacagawea Native American guide and translator for Lewis and Clark
Manifest Destiny Belief that America had a God-given right to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean
U.S.-Mexican War War with Mexico caused by annexation of Texas and boundary issues
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ended the U.S.-Mexican War; U.S> pays Mexico $15 million for Mexican Cession (CA, AZ,NV,UT,CO,NM)
Gadsden Purchase (1853) Land bought from Mexico in 1853 to build a Railroad
Gold Rush Discovery of gold in California in 1849 led to rapid population growth
Texas Annexation (1845) Texas becomes a state and enters as a slave state. Leads to war with Mexico.
Mormons Religious group that moved west to avoid persecution. Ended up in Utah
Irish Immigrated to American due to potato famine. Worked in factories in the North
Germans Immigrants who brought Kindergarten, polka, sausage to American culture
Created by: anna.melton