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Chapter 8

The Digestive System

TermDefinition
anastomosis a surgical connection between two hallow, or tubular, structures
anorexia nervosa eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance
antiemetic a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting
aphthous ulcers gray-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth
aerophagia the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
ascites an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity; result of severe liver disease
bariatrics the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases
borborygmus the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
bulimia nervosa eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced committing or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications
cachexia a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscles mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS
celiac disease an inherited autoimmune disorder characterized by a severe reaction to foods containing gluten
cheilosis a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
cholangiography a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium
cholangitis an acute inflammation of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper-right quadrant of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile
cholecystectomy the surgical removal of the gallbladder
choledocholithotomy an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of a gallstone
cholelithiasis the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
cirrhosis a chronic degenerative disease of the liver characterized by scarring
colonoscopy the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum of the cecum
Crohn's disease a chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract; it is most often found in the ileum and in the colon
diverticulitis the inflammation or infection of one or more diverticulum in the colon
diverticulosis the chronic presence of an abnormal number of diverticula in the colon
dyspepsia pain or discomfort in digestion
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
enteritis an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens
eructation the act of clenching or raising gas orally from the stomach
esophageal varices enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
esophagogastroduoenoscopy an endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualizations of the upper GI tract
gastroesophageal reflux disease the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus
gastrostomy tube a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body directly into the stomach
hematemesis the vomiting of blood
Hemoccult test a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools
hepatitis an inflammation of the liver usually caused by a viral infection
herpes labialis blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1
hiatal hernia anatomical abnormality in which the portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm
hyperemesis extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
ileus the partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine
inguinal hernia the profusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
jaundice a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membrane, and the eyes caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
leukoplakia an abnormal white precancerous lesion that develops on the tongue or the inside of the cheek
melena the passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools
morbid obesity the condition of weighing two times or more than the ideal eight or having a body mass index value greater than 40
nasogastric intubation the placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach
obesity an excessive accumulation of fat in the body
palatoplasty a surgical repair of a cleft palate, also used to refer to the repair of a cleft lip
peptic ulcers sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system
peristalsis a series of wave-like contraction of the smooth muscle in a single direction that moves the food forward into the digestive system
polyp a mushroom like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane
proctologist a physician who specializes in disorder of the colon, rectum, and anus
regurgitation the return of swallowed food into the mouth
salmonellosis transmitted by feces, either through direct contact with animal, or by eating contaminated raw or undercooked meats and eggs or unpasteurized milk and cheese products
sigmoidoscopy the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
stomatitis inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth
trismus any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer
ulcerative colitis a chronic condition of unknown causes in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation
volvulus the twisting of the intestine on itself, causing an obstruction
xerostomia the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretion by the salivary glands
Created by: Medterm8b
 

 



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