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Medical Terminology

Ch. 6 - The Digestive System/ Terms (final)

TermDefinition
bilirubin orange-colored or yellowish pigment in bile
bolus mass of masticated (chewed) food ready to be swallowed
exocrine a gland that secrete its products through execretory ducts to the surface of an organ, tissue, or a vessel
sphincter circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or close a natural opening of the body (ex: lower esophageal sphincter that constricts once food has passed into the stomach
Barium swallow aka Upper GI series radiographic examination of the Upper GI tract after giving the patient Barium solution by mouth
Barium enema aka Lower GI series radiographic examination of the Lower GI series after giving Barium through an enema (injected fluids through the rectum)
Computerized Tomography (CT) imaging at different angels and cross section
Ultrasonography imaging using high frequency sound waves
Liver Function Tests (LFT) measuring the level of some enzymes in the blood. High level indicates poor function liver (SGOT, SGPT)
Hemoccult Test (stool guaiac) a test to detect traces of blood in the stool
Stool culture a test to check bacteria's presence in the stool
Endoscopy visual examination of the inside of the body
esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) visual examination of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum
cholecystography radiographic of the Gall Bladder
sialography radiographic of the salivary glands
Gastroenterology study of the disease of the Digestive System
Gastroenterologist a physician who specializes in the disease of the Digestive System
Gastroeasophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) backfow of gastric contents into the esophagus
diverticulosis small pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine
Peptic Ulcer a wound in the stomach's wall or duodenum
pyloric stenosis narrowing of the pyloric sphincter
Halitosis bad breath
dyspepsia bad digestion (indigestion), discomfort after eating
dysphagia or aphagia difficulty swallowing
dysentery severe infection of the intestine, especially the colon, caused by ingesting contaminated food or water that carried parasites, bacteria, chemicals which results in bloody diarrhea
cholelithiasis stone in the gall bladder or bile duct
liver cirrhosis liver cells are replaced by fibrous tissue
Malabsorption Syndrome inadequate absorption of nutrients
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation
hemorrhoids dialated veins in the anal canal
eructation (belching) passing gas from the stomach
flatus (fart) passing gas from the anus
regurgitation backflow (opposite direction), vomiting
hematemesis vomiting of blood
steatorrhea passage of fat in the feces
melena passage of dark stool due to presence of blood
diarrhea frequent bowel movement and becomes passage of loose stool
constipation infrequent bowel movement and becomes passage of dry hard stool
obstipation severe constipation
fecalith fecal concretion
anorexia loss of appetite
cachexia severe loss of weight and muscle mass due to lack of nutrient, commonlyy associated w/ AIDS and cancer
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus gurgling sound in the intestine due to passage of gas (when belch)
Nasogastric Tube (NG) feeding tube for patient who is unable to swallow, for the Total Parental Nutrient (TPN) purpose
cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gall bladder
polypectomy surgical removal of the polyp
colostomy creating an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall
Created by: Hip