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Idaho Comprehensive Literacy Exam 1

Affix a bound (nonword) morpheme that changes the meaning or function of a root or stem to which it is attached, as the prefix ad- and the suffix –ing in adjoining.
Alphabetic principle the assumption underlying alphabetic writing systems that each speech sound or phoneme of a language should have its own distinctive graphic representation.
Analytic Phonics a whole-to-part approach to word study in which the student is first taught a number of sight words and then relevant phonic generalizations, which are subsequently applied to other words; deductive phonics
Automaticity n. fluent processing of information that requires little effort or attention, as sight-word recognition.
Concepts of Print understanding about book handling, front to back, top to bottom
Consonant 1. n,, a speech sound made by partial or complete closure of part of the vocal tract, which obstructs air flow and causes audible friction in varying amounts. 2. n., an alphabet letter used in representing any of these sounds.
Consonant blend also known s a consonant cluster. In a syllable, a sequence of two or more distinguishable consonant sounds before or after a vowel sound, as /skr/ and /mz/ in screams. Note: The term refers only to sounds, not to letters representing sounds.
Consonant digraph a combination of two consonant letters representing a single speech sounds, as gn for /n/ in gnat, or gh for /f/ in rough.
CVC consonant-vowel-consonant pattern which produces a short vowel sound or a closed syllable.
Decoding – v. to analyze spoken or graphic symbols of a familiar language to ascertain their intended meaning. In reading practice, the term is used primarily to refer to word identification rather than to identification of higher units of meaning.
Diphthong 1. a vowel sound, as /ī/ in buy and the vowel sounds in bee, bay, boo, boy, and bough. 2. a graphic symbol of two adjacent letters in brackets used in phonetics to represent diphthongs, as [ay].
Embedded Phonics providing phonics instruction while using whole text or passages.
Emergent literacy development of the association of print with meaning that begins early in a child’s life and continues until the child reaches the stage of conventional reading and writing
Encode v. 1. to change a message into symbols, as encode oral language into writing, encode an idea into words, encode a physical law into mathematical symbols. 2. to give a deep structure to a message. n. encoding.
Encode v. 1. to change a message into symbols, as encode oral language into writing, encode an idea into words, encode a physical law into mathematical symbols. 2. to give a deep structure to a message. n. encoding.
Explicit instruction carefully organized systematic instruction. Step-by-step instruction given in small increments with detailed explanation of concepts or skills (Nelson & Taylor, 2001)
Fluency automaticity. 3. the ability to produce words or larger language units in a limited time interval.
Grapheme n. a written or printed representation of a phonemes, a b for /b/ and oy for /oi/ in boy. Note: In English, a grapheme may be a single letter or a group of letters. It includes all the ways in which the phoneme may be written or printed.
High frequency word a word that appears many more times than most other words in spoken or written language.
Homographs n. a word with the same spelling as another word, whether or not pronounced alike, as pen (a writing instrument) vs. pen (an enclosure), or bow (and arrow) vs. bow (of a ship)
Implicit instruction students are expected to infer sound-symbol relationships or concepts
Isolated Phonics Type of systematic phonics a part-to-whole approach. Students learn the sounds, represented by letters and letter combinations, blend these sounds to pronounce words, and finally identify which phonic generalizations apply.
Language Experience Approach (LEA) 1. an approach to language learning in which students’ oral compositions are transcribed and used as materials of instruction for reading, writing, speaking, and listening;
Literacy (There are several definitions of literacy –1. the ability to read. 2. the ability of a person to engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his group and community
Morpheme n. a meaningful linguistic unit that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful elements, as the word book, or that is a component of a word, as s in books.
Morphology n. the study of structure and forms of words including derivation, inflection, and compounding.
Onset n. that part of a syllable preceding the syllable peak or nucleus; normally, the consonants preceding the vowel of a syllable, as str in strip.
Open Syllable a syllable ending in a vowel sound rather than a consonant sounds, as /bā/ and /bē/ in baby.
Orthography n. the study of the nature and use of symbols in a writing system.
Phoneme n. a minimal sound unit of speech that, when contrasted with another phoneme, affects the meaning of words in a language, a /b/ in book contrasts with /t/ in took, /k/ in cook, /h/ in hook.
Phonemic Awareness phonemic awareness is the awareness of the sounds (phonemes) that make up spoken words.
Phonics n. a way of teaching reading and spelling that stresses symbol-sound relationships, used especially in beginning instruction.
Phonological Awareness awareness of the constituent sounds of words in learning to read and spell. a) by syllables, as /book/, b) by onsets and rimes, as /b/ and /ook/, c) by phonemes, as /b/ and /oo/ and /k/.
Pragmatics n. in linguistics, the study of the choices of language persons make in social interaction and of the effects of these choices on others
Prefix n. an affix attached before a base word or root, as re- in reprint.
Recode 1. to change information from one code into another, as writing into speech.
Repeated reading a method to increase reading fluency where students reread familiar passages repeatedly. This can be done with a partner or even with a tape recorder
R-controlled vowel the modified sound of a vowel immediately preceding /r/ in the same syllable, as in care, never, sir, or, curse, etc.
Rime/phonogram n. a vowel and any following consonants of a syllable, as /ook/ in book or brook, /īk/ in strike, and /ā/ in play.
Root word n. the basic part of a word that usually carries the main component of meaning and that cannot be further analyzed without loss of identity.
Schwa sounds n. in English, the midcentral vowel in an unaccented or unstressed syllable; as the first vowel sound in alone. 2. the graphic symbol (Ə) commonly used in phonetic alphabets and pronunciation keys to represent such a vowel.
Semantics n. 1. the study of meaning in language, as the analysis of the meanings of words, phrases, sentences, discourse, and whole texts
Shared reading the teacher involves a group of young children in the reading of a book in order to help them learn aspects of beginning literacy, such as CAP and the concept of word, and to develop reading strategies, as in decoding or the use of prediction.
Sight word 1. a word that is immediately recognizable and does not require word analysis for identification. 2. a word taught as a whole. phonically irregular words are important to learn before students have skills to decode them are often taught as sight words.
Structural analysis the identification of word-meaning elements, as re and read in reread, to help understand the meaning of a word as a whole; morphemic analysis.
Suffix n. an affix attached to the end of a base, root, or stem that changes meaning or grammatical function of the word, as –en added to ox- to form oxen.
Syllable in phonology, a minimal unit of sequential speech sounds comprised of a vowel sound or a vowel-consonant combination, as /a/, /ba/, /ab/,/bab/, etc.
Syntax n. 1. the study of how sentences are formed and of the grammatical rules that govern their formation.
Synthetic Phonics a part-to-whole phonics approach in which the student learns the sounds represented by letters and letter combinations, blends these sounds to pronounce words, and finally identifies which phonic generalizations apply; inductive phonics.
VAKT—Fernald (-Keller) method—a technique for learning to identify printed words, also called VAKT because it involves looking at a word (visual) while saying it (auditory) and tracing it (kinesthetic, tactile), a technique for learning to identify printed words, also called VAKT because it involves looking at a word (visual) while saying it (auditory) and tracing it (kinesthetic, tactile),
Vowel n. 1. a voiced speech sound made without stoppage or friction of the air flow as it passes through the vocal tract.
Vowel digraph a spelling pattern in which two or more adjoining letters represent a single vowel sound, as eigh for /ā/ in sleigh, ea for /e/ in bread, or aw for /ô/ in saw.
Word Sorts a vocabulary-development and word-study activity in which words on cards are grouped according to designated categories, as by spelling patterns, vowel sounds, shared meanings, etc.
Created by: judyconrad
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