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WRH - Part 1a

Women's Reproductive Health - Reproductive Anatomy, Oogenesis & Spermatogenesis

TermDefinition
What are the primary sex organs, or gonads, in females? ovaries
What is the function of the gonads in females? -to produce gametes, ova (oogenesis) -to secrete sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone
What are the primary sex organs, or gonads, in males? testes
What is the function of the gonads in males? -to produce gametes, sperm (spermatogenesis) -to secrete sex hormones, testosterone
What is Müllerian inhibitory hormone? a hormone produced by fetal testis
What is the function of Müllerian inhibitory hormone? causes Müllerian ducts to degenerate
What is the SRY gene? the sex determining region on the Y chromosome
What is the function of the SRY gene? directs undifferentiated gonads to form into testes
What is a sertoli cell? a cell that surrounds developing sperm in the seminiferous tubules
What is the function of a sertoli cell? to provide nourishment to developing sperm
What is a Y chromosome? the smaller of the two types of sex chromosomes
What is the function of a Y chromosome? it contains a gene, SRY, which triggers embryonic development as a male
What are sex chromosomes? types of chromosome that participate in sex determination
What is the function of sex chromosomes? sex determination; XX = female, XY = male
What is a primary oocyte? oogonia (ovary-specific stem cells) that have gone through mitosis and the beginning of meiosis I
What is the function of a primary oocyte? to remain in meiotic arrest within follicles until prepared for ovulation, in which case it develops into a secondary oocyte
What is a secondary oocyte? a primary oocyte that has completed meiosis I up to metaphase II
What is the function of a secondary oocyte? to be released at ovulation, when its follicle breaks up
What is an embryo? the product of fertilization (term used up until 8 weeks)
What is the function of an embryo? to develop into a fetus
What are Mullerian ducts? part of the undifferentiated reproductive system that eventually develops into the oviducts, uterus, cervix and upper vagina in the absence of MIH
What are Wolffian ducts? part of the undifferentiated reproductive system that eventually develops into the epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles in the presence of testosterone
What is Klinefelter's syndrome? a genetic disorder that affects males; they are born with 47 chromosomes instead of 46 (XXY)
What is Turner's syndrome? a genetic disorder that affects females; they are born with 45 chromosomes instead of 46 (XO)
What is genetic sex? the fundamental distinction based on the type of gametes produced by the individual
What was Aristotle's view of human reproductive anatomy? -men and women are the same species b/c both warm blooded -but, men have more heat b/c their genitals are external -women have insufficient heat to keep genitals warm externally -more heat = superior -women have less natural heat = "lesser man"
What was Galen's view of human reproductive anatomy? -believed male and female reproductive organs are homologous (right to a certain point) -female = cooler/less perfect version of male; a replica -believed this was a wise choice, b/c inside the organs are safe for conception/gestation
What were Victorian (19th century) physicians' and scientists' views of human reproductive anatomy? -believed there were no common qualities between men and women (and their repro. organs) -women = by-products of their repro. system -uterus connected to cns (brain) -overstimulation of cns would cause repro. organs to shrivel and die (in white women)
How does spermatogenesis and oogenesis compare in terms of length/when produced? -spermatogenesis accomplished within 2 months (or 64 days) -oogenesis takes anywhere from age 12 (puberty) to 50 (menopause) to complete on a cyclic basis
How does spermatogenesis and oogenesis compare in terms of supply? -postpubertal male can produce several hundred million sperm each day -female born with limited, largely nonrenewable supply of germ cells
How does spermatogenesis and oogenesis compare in terms of yield for primary spermatocyte/oocyte? -each primary spermatocyte yields 4 equally viable spermatozoa -each primary oocyte yields just 1 cytoplasm-rich ovum and 3 cytoplasm-poor polar bodies that degenerate
the male and female anatomy, sex differentiation, oogenesis, spermatogenesis
Summary of mitosis (DNA replication, number of divisions, synapsis of homologs, # of daughter cells and genetic composition, role in the animal body): -DNA replication occurs during interphase (before mitosis) -1 division -no synapsis of homologs (individual chromosomes line up) -2 daughter cells, each diploid (2n), genetically identical to parent -zygote -> multicellular adult
Summary of meiosis (DNA replication, number of divisions, synapsis of homologs, # of daughter cells and genetic composition, role in the animal body): -DNA replication occurs during interphase (before meiosis I) -2 divisions -synapsis occurs during prophase I -4 daughter cells, each haploid (n), genetically diverse -role is to produce gametes and introduce genetic variability
Created by: jessica.gvc
 

 



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